Journal of Agricultural and Applied Economics
Опубликовано на портале: 09-03-2005Allen M. Featherstone, Michael R. Langemeier, Mohammad Ismet Journal of Agricultural and Applied Economics. 1997. Vol. 29. No. 1. P. 175-184.
Competitive pressures in the cow-calf sector increased in 1995 because of a decline of 27% in calf prices. Technical, allocative, and scale efficiency measures were used to examine the competitiveness of a sample of Kansas beef cow farms. On average, the farms were 78% technically efficient, 81 % allocatively efficient, and 95% scale efficient. Enterprise profitability was correlated positively with the efficiency measures. Inefficiency was related to herd size and degree of specialization. Producers should focus on using capital, feed, and labor more efficiently rather than increasing their size. Increased concentration of the cow-calf sector will not result in large cost savings given the current technology.
Опубликовано на портале: 25-02-2005Phillip N. Johnson, S.K. Misra, R. Terry Ervin Journal of Agricultural and Applied Economics. 1997. Vol. 29. No. 1. P. 163-173.
The future use of Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) lands is an important agricultural policy issue. To examine the effects of factors that influence landowners’ post-contract use of CRP lands, a survey of Texas High Plains CRP contract holders was conducted in 1992. This study analyzes the results of the survey using a qualitative choice model. It was found that the presence of a livestock enterprise in the current contract holder’s operation increases the probability of these acres remaining in the established cover. Contract holders who value the commodity base have an increased probability of returning their acres to crop production.
Опубликовано на портале: 28-04-2005Brett D. Begemann Journal of Agricultural and Applied Economics. 1997. Vol. 29. No. 1. P. 117-122.
The agricultural biotechnology industry has evolved from a focus on outstanding science to a more mature phase where firms focus on new-term products and building businesses. Understanding complex relationships and distribution channels and a global perspective are crucial to commercialization. Yet, leading-edge technology and early identification of key traits will be critical to developing superior products that ensure competitiveness in the marketplace. Monsanto is organizing around a life sciences model where seed, crop chemicals, pharmaceuticals, and food ingredient businesses will exploit mutual synergies driven by basic science and discovery.
Опубликовано на портале: 28-04-2005Sri R.M. Andayani, Daniel S. Tilley Journal of Agricultural and Applied Economics. 1997. Vol. 29. No. 2. P. 279-289.
Indonesia is a rapidly growing and competitive market for U.S. fruit. A restricted, source differentiated, almost ideal demand system is estimated for apples, oranges, grapes, and other fruit in Indonesia. The Marshallian expenditure elasticities for U.S. fruit are estimated to be between 1.01 and 1.21. For grapes and oranges, competition with other fruits appears to be more important than competition with other supply sources. For apples, strong source differentiated substitution relationships are found.
Опубликовано на портале: 10-03-2005Barry K. Goodwin, Bryan Schurle, D.W. Norman, S.G. Freyenberger, L.E. Bloomquist, D.L. Regehr Journal of Agricultural and Applied Economics. 1997. Vol. 29. No. 2. P. 385-396.
On-farm research (OFR) has increased in popularity in the U.S. in recent years due to heightened interest in sustainability issues, the likely decline in resources available for agricultural research, and increasing pressures for accountability and responsiveness to state and local needs. Information relating to OFR was obtained from 431 commercial Kansas farmers. Data were analyzed to determine the degree of OFR being implemented, and three models were estimated to identify which farrner/farrn characteristics influenced its implementation, The results indicate that OFR is commonly implemented, and that several farm/farmer characteristics are related to the degree of OFR initiated. It is proposed that to maximize the return from externally initiated OFR, there would be merit in focusing attention on farms/farmers with those characteristics.
Опубликовано на портале: 09-03-2005Robert L. Kellogg, Don W. Goss Journal of Agricultural and Applied Economics. 1997. Vol. 29. No. 1. P. 77-86.
In the fields of agriculture and resource economics, good economics is predicated by good science. By partnering more with physical scientists, economists will be better able to provide the broad policy-making community with practical recommendations for addressing resource issues. An example of collaboration is presented for the development of environmental indicators of the potential risk to the environment of the loss of pesticides from farm fields, which will be used by economists to adjust conventionally measured agricultural output for water quality impacts associated with agricultural production.
Economic and Environmental Effects Associated with Reducing the Use of Atrazine: An Example of Cross-Disciplinary Research [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 28-04-2005Marc O. Ribaudo, Terrance M. Hurley Journal of Agricultural and Applied Economics. 1997. Vol. 29. No. 1. P. 87-97.
Restricting or eliminating the use of atrazine in the Midwest would have important economic consequences for farmers, consumers, and the environment. These consequences can only be evaluated with cooperation between economists and weed scientists. The weed control choice set available to farmers cannot be observed through deductive research. Economists and weed scientists worked together to identify all possible weed control strategies for corn and sorghum in the Midwest and to incorporate them into an economic model. An atrazine ban was found to be the costliest strategy, and a targeted, water-quality based strategy the most cost effective.
Опубликовано на портале: 28-04-2005Jeffrey H. Dorfman, Christopher S. McIntosh Journal of Agricultural and Applied Economics. 1997. Vol. 29. No. 2. P. 337-345.
Forecasts of economic time series are often evaluated according to their accuracy as measured by either quantitative precision or qualitative reliability. We argue that consumers purchase forecasts for the potential utility gains from utilizing them, not for their accuracy. Using Monte Carlo techniques to incorporate the temporal heteroskedasticity inherent in asset returns, the expected utility of a set of qualitative forecasts is simulated for corn and soybean futures prices. Monetary values for forecasts of various reliability levels are derived. The method goes beyond statistical forecast evaluation, allowing individuals to incorporate their own utility function and trading system into valuing a set of asset price forecasts
Опубликовано на портале: 28-04-2005Darrell J. Bosch, Minkang Zhu, Ervin T. Kornegay Journal of Agricultural and Applied Economics. 1997. Vol. 29. No. 2. P. 255-266.
Requiring that crop applications of manure be based on phosphorus content (P-standard) could increase poultry litter disposal costs, Microbial phytase reduces litter P content and could reduce litter disposal costs under a P-standard, For a representative Virginia turkey farm, phytase costs $2,500 and could increase value of litter used for fertilizer on the turkey farm by $390 and reduce supplemental P feed costs by $1,431. Based on assumed litter demand and supply, estimated litter export prices with phytase could exceed export prices without phytase by $3.81 per ton. Phytase net returns to the farm are an estimated $1,435.
Опубликовано на портале: 09-03-2005J. Walter Milon, Clyde F. Kiker, Donna J. Lee Journal of Agricultural and Applied Economics. 1997. Vol. 29. No. 1. P. 99-107.
Recently many state and federal agencies in the U.S. have embraced an ecosystems management approach to environmental protection and regulation. This approach requires a high degree of cooperation between natural and social scientists to translate policy objectives into research hypotheses, models, and evaluation procedures to guide implementation decisions. An adaptive procedure to guide interdisciplinary research is described and illustrated with highlights of recent progress and pitfalls from the restoration initiative for the Everglades/South Florida ecosystem.
Estimating Insecticide Application Frequencies: A Comparison of Geometric and Other Count Data Models [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 09-03-2005B.J. Hubbell Journal of Agricultural and Applied Economics. 1997. Vol. 29. No. 2. P. 225-242.
The number of insecticide applications made by an apple grower to control an insect infestation is modeled as a geometric random variable. Insecticide efficacy, rate per application, month of treatment, and method of application all have significant impacts on the expected number of applications, The number of applications to control a given insect population is dependent on the probability of achieving successful control with a given application. Results suggest that northeastern growers have the highest and mid-Atlantic growers the lowest probability of controlling an infestation with a given application. Results also indicate that scales require the least and moths the most number of applications. Growers are not responsive to per unit insecticide prices, but respond negatively to insecticide toxicity, supporting findings from previous pesticide demand analyses.
Опубликовано на портале: 09-03-2005Paul M. Jakus, Kelly H. Tiller, William M. Park Journal of Agricultural and Applied Economics. 1997. Vol. 29. No. 1. P. 141-148.
Rising landfill costs have forced solid waste managers to consider waste stream reduction alternatives such as household recycling. Explaining the factors which motivate households to recycle is important to regions where households must bear a large portion of the recycling cost because unit-based garbage disposal fees and curbside recycling are not feasible options. Empirical results indicate that residents are responsive to constraints introduced by the household production technology, such as time costs and storage space, but are not responsive to variables measuring a recycling promotional program. Promotion efforts should switch focus from broader “public good” benefits of recycling to reducing household-level household production constraints.
Factors Affecting Production Efficiency in a New Alternative Enterprise: The Case of the Ratite Industry [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 10-03-2005Jeffrey Gillespie, Alvin R. Schupp, Gary Taylor Journal of Agricultural and Applied Economics. 1997. Vol. 29. No. 2. P. 409-418.
Technical efficiency measures are calculated for ratite producers using data envelopment analysis. Regression analysis is then used to determine producer characteristics that are likely to lead to higher technical efficiencies. Results indicate that the most technically efficient ratite producers in Louisiana are not producing at the benchmark efficiency level advocated by the industry. Producer experience with other livestock, specialization, and labor are factors likely to lead to higher technical efficiency. These results are expected to hold for most new, alternative livestock enterprises.
Опубликовано на портале: 09-03-2005Barry M. Purdy, Michael R. Langemeier, Allen M. Featherstone Journal of Agricultural and Applied Economics. 1997. Vol. 29. No. 1. P. 149–161.
A sample of Kansas farms was used to examine the impact of risk and specialization on mean financial performance. Mean financial performance was hypothesized to be influenced by risk, age of the operator, percentage of acres owned, financial efficiency, leverage, specialization, and farm size. Risk, age of operator, financial efficiency, and farm size had the largest impacts on mean financial performance. Specializing in swine, dairy, or crop production increased mean financial performance, while specializing in beef production decreased mean financial performance. Farms with both crops and a livestock enterprise (beef, swine, or dairy) tended to have less variability in financial performance.
Опубликовано на портале: 28-04-2005Harry M. Kaiser Journal of Agricultural and Applied Economics. 1997. Vol. 29. No. 2. P. 303-313.
The impacts of generic dairy advertising on retail, wholesale, and farm dairy markets are estimated in this study at the national level. The results indicate that generic dairy advertising had a major impact on retail, wholesale, and farm markets for the dairy industry. The main conclusion of the study is that farmers are receiving a high return on their investment in generic dairy advertising, i.e., an average rate of return of $3,40 for every dollar invested over the period 1984–95. Moreover, the return on investment in advertising was higher in the most recent year, almost double the average for the previous 11 years.