World Bank Policy Research Working Papers
Опубликовано на портале: 16-12-2003Thorsten Beck World Bank Policy Research Working Papers. 2001. No. 2608.
Economies with better developed financial sectors have a comparative advantage in manufacturing industries. A two-sector model shows the sector with large scale economies profiting more than the other from a well-developed financial sector. In countries with higher levels of financial development, manufactured exports represent a higher share of GDP and of merchandise exports—and those countries have a higher trade balance in manufactured goods. Beck explores a possible link between financial development and trade in manufactures. His theoretical model focuses on the role of financial intermediaries in facilitating large-scale, high-return projects. Results show that economies with better developed financial sectors have a comparative advantage in manufacturing industries. He provides evidence for this hypothesis, first proposed by Kletzer and Bardhan (1987), using a 30-year panel of data for 65 countries. Controlling for country-specific effects and possible reverse causality, he shows that financial development exerts a large causal impact on the level of both exports and the trade balance of manufactured goods.
Опубликовано на портале: 19-10-2004Tito Boeri, Katherine Terrell World Bank Policy Research Working Papers. 2001.
The transition process from planned economies to market-oriented economies involves a substantial reallocation of labor. In the planned economies employment was typically concentrated in heavy industry, away from consumers preferences. A strong small business sector was lacking, and private initiative had been tolerated almost exclusively in agriculture. Patterns of foreign trade were determined by economic planners within the framework of the Council for Mutual Economic Assistance. In the process of transition, employment had to flow out of such sectors as state-owned heavy industry into the new private, mostly small-scale, business sector. The success of transition in a given country can be assessed in part by how well it has addressed the problem of reallocating labor.
Опубликовано на портале: 16-12-2003Alan V. Deardorff World Bank Policy Research Working Papers. 2001. No. 2548.
By reducing the costs of such trade services as transport, insurance, and finance, liberalizing trade in services can generate benefits in the markets for every kind of trade they facilitate. It can also stimulate the fragmentation of production of both goods and services, thus increasing international trade and the gains from trade even further. Deardorff examines the special role that trade liberalization in services industries can play in stimulating trade in both services and goods. International trade in goods requires inputs from such trade services as transportation, insurance, and finance, for example. Restrictions on services across borders and within foreign countries add costs and barriers to international trade. Liberalizing trade in services could also facilitate trade in goods, providing more benefits than one might expect from analysis merely of the services trade. To emphasize the point, Deardorff notes that the benefits for trade are arguably enhanced by the phenomenon of fragmentation. The more that production processes become split across locations, with the fragments tied together and coordinated by various trade services, the greater the gains from reductions in the costs of services. The incentives for such fragmentation can be greater across countries than within countries because of the greater differences in factor prices and technologies. But the service costs of international fragmentation can also be larger, especially if regulations and restrictions impede the international provision of services. As a result, trade liberalization in services can stimulate the fragmentation of production of both goods and services, thus increasing international trade and the gains from trade even further. Since fragmentation seems to characterize an increasing portion of world specialization, the importance of service liberalization is growing apace.