Эксоцман
на главную поиск contacts
В разделе собрана информация о статьях по экономике, социологии и менеджменту. Во многих случаях приводятся полные тексты статей. (подробнее...)

Economics Working Paper Archive at WUSTL

Опубликовано на портале: 05-02-2003
Douglass C. North Economics Working Paper Archive at WUSTL. 1993. 
North outlines five propositions about institutional change and explains its meanings. He lays out a specific agenda for the study of institutions that is different from game theoretic or spatial political modeling of institutions. The focus is a transaction cost approach to institutions and a cognitive science approach to "rational" choice. While the former--the transaction cost approach--is at least partly complementary to game theoretic approaches, the latter suggests a distinct departure from much of the current rational choice theory.
ресурс содержит полный текст, либо отрывок из него ресурс содержит прикрепленный файл
Опубликовано на портале: 05-02-2003
Douglass C. North Economics Working Paper Archive at WUSTL. 1994. 
A theory of institutional change is essential for further progress in the social sciences in general and economics in particular, because neo-classical theory (and other theories in the social scientist's tool bag) at present cannot satisfactorily account for the very diverse performance of societies and economies both at a moment of time and over time. North sketches out a framework for analyzing institutions. This framework builds on the economic theory of choice subject to constraints. However it incorporates new assumptions about both the constraints that individuals face and the process by which they make choices within those constraints. Among the traditional neoclassical assumptions that are relaxed are those of costless exchange, perfect information, and unlimited cognitive capabilities. Too many gaps still remain in our understanding of this new approach to call it a theory. North presents a set of definitions, principles, and a structure, which provide much of the scaffolding necessary to develop a theory of institutional change.
ресурс содержит полный текст, либо отрывок из него ресурс содержит прикрепленный файл
Опубликовано на портале: 05-02-2003
Douglass C. North Economics Working Paper Archive at WUSTL. 1994. 
The performance of an economy is a function of both the institutions and technology developed in a society but the literature on productivity is devoid of any discussion of the institutional foundations of the economy. Instead that literature and the growth accounting quantitative foundations of that analysis focus on the significance of the capital stock, technology, R&D, and savings in the rate of growth of productivity. The new growth economics literature equally equates growth with human capital investment, physical capital, savings and sometimes as a negative function of population growth. The argument of this essay is that productivity increases result from both improvements in human organization and from technological developments.
ресурс содержит полный текст, либо отрывок из него ресурс содержит прикрепленный файл
Опубликовано на портале: 03-05-2005
Joseph Farrell, Richard J. Gilbert, Michael L. Katz Economics Working Paper Archive at WUSTL. 2002.  No. 0303006.
We examine the effects of market structure and the internal organization of firms on equilibrium R&D projects. We compare a monopolist’s choice of R&D portfolio to that of a welfare maximizer. We next show that Sah and Stiglitz’s finding that the market portfolio of R&D is independent of the number of firms under Bertrand competition extends to neither Cournot oligopoly nor a cartel. We also show that the ability of firms to pre-empt R&D by rivals along particular research paths can lead to socially excessive R&D diversification. Lastly, using Sah and Stiglitz’s definition of hierarchy, we establish conditions under which larger hierarchies invest in smaller portfolios.
ресурс содержит гиперссылку на сайт, на котором можно найти дополнительную информацию
Опубликовано на портале: 05-02-2003
Arthur T. Denzau, Douglass C. North Economics Working Paper Archive at WUSTL. 1993. 
Denzau and North argue that ideas matter, and that the way that ideas are communicated among people is crucial to building useful theories that will enable us to deal with strong uncertainty problems at the individual level. Under conditions of uncertainty, individuals' interpretation of their environment will reflect the learning that they have undergone. Individuals with common cultural backgrounds and experiences will share reasonably convergent mental models, ideologies and institutions and individuals with different learning experiences (both cultural and environmental) will have different theories (models, ideologies) to interpret that environment. It is the argument of this essay that in order to understand decision making under such conditions of uncertainty we must understand the relationship between the mental models that individuals construct to make sense out of the world around them, the ideologies that evolve from such constructions, and the institutions that develop in a society to order interpersonal relationships.
ресурс содержит полный текст, либо отрывок из него ресурс содержит прикрепленный файл
Опубликовано на портале: 05-02-2003
Douglass C. North Economics Working Paper Archive at WUSTL. 1994. 
This essay elaborates, extends and modifies a "Neo-Classical Theory of the State" (North, 1981, Ch. 3) in three directions: 1. it incorporates time into the model; 2. it is explicitly concerned with the perceptions- -the belief systems--that determine choices; and 3. it relates the belief systems to the external environment of the players; both the past environmental experiences that are incorporated in cultural conditioning and the present environmental experiences incorporated in "local learning".
ресурс содержит полный текст, либо отрывок из него ресурс содержит прикрепленный файл
Опубликовано на портале: 05-02-2003
Douglass C. North Economics Working Paper Archive at WUSTL. 1994. 
An economic definition of transaction costs is the costs of measuring what is being exchanged and enforcing agreements. In the larger context of societal evolution they are all the costs involved in human interaction over time. It is this larger context that North explores in this essay. The concept is a close kin to the notion of social capital advanced by James Coleman (1990) and applied imaginatively to studying the differential patterns of Italian regional development by Robert Putnam in Making Democracy Work (1993). This essay, therefore, is a study in economic history which focuses on the costs of human coordination and cooperation through time which I regard as the key dilemma of societies past, present and future.
ресурс содержит полный текст, либо отрывок из него ресурс содержит прикрепленный файл
Опубликовано на портале: 03-05-2005
Richard J. Gilbert, Justine Hastings Economics Working Paper Archive at WUSTL. 2002.  No. 0201001.
This paper explores the relationship between the structure of the market for the reÞning and distribution of gasoline and the wholesale price of unbranded gasoline sold to independent gasoline retailers. Theoretically, the eect of an increase in vertical integration is ambiguous because opposing forces act to increase and decrease wholesale prices. We empirically examine the eects of vertical and horizontal market structures on wholesale prices using both a broad panel and an event analysis. The panel covers twenty-six metropolitan areas from January 1993 through June 1997. The event is a merger of Tosco and Unocal in 1997 that changed the vertical and horizontal structure of thirteen West Coast metropolitan areas. Both data sets show that an increase in the degree of vertical integration is associated with higher wholesale prices.
ресурс содержит гиперссылку на сайт, на котором можно найти дополнительную информацию
Опубликовано на портале: 06-02-2003
Douglass C. North Economics Working Paper Archive at WUSTL. 1996. 
Improving our understanding of the nature of economic change entails that we draw on the only laboratory that we have--the past. But "understanding" the past entails imposing order on the myriad facts that have survived to explain what has happened--that is theory. The theories we develop to understand where we have been come from the social sciences. Therefore there is a constant give and take between the theories we develop, and their application to explain the past. To begin we need to assess what we have learned from the past and then assess the usefulness of the tools at hand--i.e. the rationality assumption and growth theory we employ in economics? We will then go on to explore in subsequent sections some recent development that offer the promise of improving our understanding of the past and of where we are going.
ресурс содержит полный текст, либо отрывок из него ресурс содержит прикрепленный файл