Journal of Economic Perspectives
Опубликовано на портале: 05-06-2007Richard J. Gilbert, Michael L. Katz Journal of Economic Perspectives. 2001. Vol. 15. No. 2. P. 25-441.
We analyze the central economic issues raised by U.S. v Microsoft. Network effects and economies of scale in applications programs created a barrier to entry for new operating system competitors, which the combination of Netscape Navigator and the Java programming language potentially could have lowered. Microsoft took actions to eliminate this threat to its operating system monopoly, and some of Microsoft's conduct very likely harmed consumers. While we recognize the risks of the government's proposed structural remedy of splitting Microsoft in two, we are pessimistic that a limited conduct remedy would be effective in this case.
Опубликовано на портале: 06-11-2008Andrei Shleifer, Daniel S. Treisman Journal of Economic Perspectives. 2005.
Beyond Incentive Pay: Insiders' Estimates of the Value of Complementary Human Resource Management Practices [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 12-07-2007Kathryn L. Shaw, Casey Ichniowski Journal of Economic Perspectives. 2003. Vol. 17. No. 1. P. 155-180.
Do human resource management (HRM) practices, such as incentive pay, teamwork, training, and careful screening practices, raise productivity, and if so, under what conditions does productivity rise? Recently, this question has been a central focus in organizational and personnel economics. We emphasize the value of a new research approach--an approach we label "insider econometrics"--that is aimed going deep inside businesses to obtain data and insights into the ways in which HRM practices affect specific production processes. We conclude that sets of complementary HRM practices appear to raise performance, but that some firms, such as those that make complex products or those that are starting up brand new facilities, benefit more from these practices.
Cheap Talk [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 31-01-2007Joseph Farrel, Matthew Rabin Journal of Economic Perspectives. 1996. Vol. 10. No. 3. P. 103-118.
Economists often ask how private information is shared through markets, costly signaling, and other mechanisms. Yet most information sharing is done through ordinary, informal talk. Economists are inconsistent in their view of such 'cheap talk': sometimes it is supposed that communication generally leads to efficient equilibria; other times it is supposed that since 'talk is cheap,' it is never credible. The authors think both views are wrong. In this paper, they describe what some recent research in game theory teaches about when people will convey private information by cheap talk.
Опубликовано на портале: 14-07-2005Howard Pack Journal of Economic Perspectives. 1994. No. 8. P. 55-72.
This paper examines whether the recent theoretical insights stemming from endogenous growth theory have provided a better guide to explaining actual growth experience than the neoclassical model. The paper considers the available empirical evidence on a number of related subjects, including the slowing of growth in the OECD countries over the last two decades; the acceleration of growth in several Asian countries since the early 1960s; studies of the determinants of growth in a cross-country context; and sources of the differences in international productivity levels. It concludes that the empirical confirmation, so far, of endogenous growth theory is limited.
Опубликовано на портале: 05-02-2007Derek Allen Neal Journal of Economic Perspectives. 2002. Vol. 16. No. 4. P. 25-44.
This article examines the ways in which vouchers could change the market for education. In this article, the existing literature on the relative performance of public and private schools are reviewed. Although the literature on the performance of public versus private schools does not indicate that existing private schools outperform public school across the board, there is evidence that public schools in cities may perform poorly compared to their private school neighbors. The most compelling evidence of minority students in cities, especially African-American students, who gain access to Catholic schools. It is possible that estimated gains from Catholic schooling arise from peer effects and not from better school performance. When a student with a voucher or a scholarship attends a private school, this student may enter classrooms that contain very different peers that she knew in public school. Arguments over vouchers sometimes proceed as if their only effect would be to redistribute students among a very similar group of teachers. But some of the most important potential outcomes of adopting vouchers involve likely changes in the labor market for teachers. These changes may have important impacts on who enters the teaching profession as well as how teachers allocate their efforts among the multiple tasks that comprise the job of teacher. The author concludes by describing agency problems that might arise between taxpayers and schools under vouchers. Opponents of vouchers often contend that private schools cannot be held accountable to taxpayers for how they use public funds.
School Vouchers: A Critical View [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 05-02-2007Helen F. Ladd Journal of Economic Perspectives. 2002. Vol. 16. No. 4. P. 3-24.
This paper marshals available evidence from both the U.S. and other countries on the effects of private schools, peer effects, and competition to demonstrate that that any gains in overall student achievement from a large scale voucher program are at best likely to be small. Moreover, given the tendency of parents to judge schools in part by the characteristics of a school's students, a universal voucher system would undoubtedly harm large numbers of disadvantaged students. Although the case for a small means tested voucher program is somewhat stronger, it will do little to improve education for low-performing students.