Journal of Economic Literature
Опубликовано на портале: 08-12-2003Thomas S. Dee, William N. Evans, Sheila E. Murray Journal of Economic Literature. 1999. Vol. 13. No. 3. P. 205-216.
Economists have developed a wide variety of policy-relevant, empirical research projects that address the role of education in promoting individual and social welfare. Recent examples include studies on the impact of school spending on educational outputs, the differences between public and private schools, the effects of competition among schools, the determinants of teacher quality, the impact of unions on schools and the consequences of education finance reform. One reason for the proliferation of such empirical studies has been the emergence of high-quality, micro-level data on education. In this paper, we discuss three broad types of data sets: data on educational institutions, data on educational outcomes at the individual level, and data sets from school reforms and experiments. In each section, we summarize some of the leading surveys, discuss the general availability of the data, and identify some, but certainly not all, of the research that has utilized these data. This review is by no means exhaustive. We have restricted our attention to analyses of data sets describing primary and secondary education. Moreover, we emphasize data sets that are excellent sources of information but are less wellknown and utilized by economists. In particular, two obvious omissions from this review are the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY) and the Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID). Both are broad-based studies that track people over periods of time, gathering information both on educational attainment and on many other issues as well.
Опубликовано на портале: 08-12-2003Eric A. Hanushek Journal of Economic Literature. 1996. Vol. 10. No. 4. P. 9-30.
This article begins by reviewing the main body of evidence about the effectiveness of resources devoted to schools. It then discusses some of the central implications for policy and for economic research. The implications for educational policy draw heavily on the discussion of the Panel one the Economics of Education Reform (PEER), a group of economists who met over a four-year period to discuss economic aspects of educational investments. Those recommendations are only sketched here, but are detailed in its report, Making Schools Work (Hanushek and others, 1994).
Опубликовано на портале: 29-10-2008Rafael La Porta, Florencio Lopez-de-Silanes, Andrei Shleifer Journal of Economic Literature. 2008. Vol. 46. No. 2. P. 285-332.
In the last decade, economists have produced a considerable body of research suggesting that the historical origin of a country's laws is highly correlated with a broad range of its legal rules and regulations, as well as with economic outcomes. We summarize this evidence and attempt a unified interpretation. We also address several objections to the empirical claim that legal origins matter. Finally, we assess the implications of this research for economic reform.
The economics of exchange rates [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 28-04-2004Mark Peter Taylor Journal of Economic Literature. 1995. Vol. 33. No. 1. P. 13-47.
Содержится обзор литературы по экономической теории валютного курса за последние 20 лет, включая новейшие разработки. В этот период экономическая теория валютного курса была одной из наиболее динамично развивающихся областей экономической науки. Тематика представлена по разделам, в числе которых: 1. Исследования эффективности валютного рынка. 2. Различные теории установления валютного курса. 3. Эффективность интервенций на валютном рынке. 4. Валютный коридор. 5. Микроструктура рынка. Определяются перспективы исследований в этой области. В портале есть рецензия на эту статью.
Опубликовано на портале: 31-03-2003William S. Comanor, Thomas A. Wilson Journal of Economic Literature. 1979. Vol. 17. No. 2. P. 453-476.
The publication of Lester G. Telser's 1964 paper  was the starting point for much of the recent literature on advertising and competition. The major finding of that paper was that "there is little empirical support for an inverse association between advertising and competition, despite some plausible theorizing to the contrary" This review does not deal with the question of whether advertising is excessive, nor with the related issues of the welfare economics of advertising or product differentiation. Rather, it focuses on those papers which examine the impact of advertising on barriers to entry and on the extent of price competition. Advertising expenditures are designed to influence consumer demand for the firm's products. They may affect both direct and cross-elasticities of demand. Those who argue that advertising may limit competition maintain that the relevant demand curves are more inelastic and that cross-elasticities are lower as a result, while those who dispute this contention suggest that advertising has no such influence or even that it leads to more elastic demands and higher cross-elasticities. Much controversy has therefore turned on the direction of the effects of advertising on demand elasticities. [Авторский текст]
The "New Political Economy": Two Recent Books (Новая политическая экономия: две последние книги) [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 29-02-2004Saint-Paul Gilles Journal of Economic Literature. 2000. Vol. 38. No. 4. P. 915-925.
В статье представлен сравнительный обзор и содержательный анализ двух книг по новой политической экономии: А.Дрейзена (Political economy in macroeconomics) и T.Перссона, Г.Табеллини (Political Economics: Explaining Economic Policy) С-П. Жиль полемизирует с авторами книг по вопросам предпосылок поведения агентов, по поводу эмпирических результатов исследований и используемых моделей. Автор использует в полемике как свои работы, так и работы других исследователей.
U.S. Earnings Levels and Earnings Inequality: A Review of Recent Trends and Proposed Explanations [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 22-03-2007Richard J. Murnane, Frank Levy Journal of Economic Literature. 1992. Vol. 30. No. 3. P. 1333-81.
The article studies the U.S. earning trends since 1950 and gives explanations for the inequality in earnings. Both slow growth and increased inequality appear in the comparison of adult male earnings distributions for 1979 and 1987. Trends in women's earnings paint a somewhat brighter picture. Women, like men, have experienced slow hourly wage growth and growing wage inequality. But in terms of annual earnings, both factors have been offset by changes in hours worked. The result is a significant increase in the proportion of women who earn $20,000 a year or more. A combination of shifts in supply and shifts in demand is necessary to explain the observed trends between these groups. A critical aspect of supply shifts was the entry into the labor market of the well-educated baby boom generation. Demand shifts can be characterized as a long-term trend toward increasing relative demand for highly skilled workers. The growth in within group earnings inequality has many potential explanations, but it is not well understood and contains opportunities for future research.