International Labour Review
Опубликовано на портале: 09-03-2004Alvaro Espina International Labour Review. 1996. Vol. 135. No. 2. P. 181-205.
The current pensions situation requires a number of reforms in order to correct distortions which have emerged and to meet the challenges posed by the radically changing demographic structure of most European countries. The direction that those reforms should take is crucial to the current debate on the outlook for the Welfare State. This article examines the pension schemes of the most developed countries of the OECD, with particular reference to Spain, and discusses the prospects for reform.
Опубликовано на портале: 26-10-2004Richard Anker International Labour Review. 1997. Vol. 136. No. 3.
Occupational segregation by sex is extensive in every region, at all economic development levels, under all political systems, and in diverse religious, social and cultural environments. It is one of the most important and enduring aspects of labour markets around the world. There are several reasons to be concerned with occupational segregation. It is a major source of labour market rigidity and economic inefficiency. Excluding a majority of workers from a majority of occupations, as at present, is wasteful of human resources, increases labour market inflexibility, and reduces an economy's ability to adjust to change. With the globalization of production and intensified international competition, these factors have assumed greater importance. Furthermore, occupational segregation by sex is detrimental to women. It has an important negative effect on how men view women and on how women view themselves. This in turn negatively affects women's status and income and, consequently, many social variables such as mortality and morbidity, poverty and income inequality. The persistence of gender stereotypes also has negative effects on education and training and thus causes gender-based inequalities to be perpetuated into future generations.