NBER Working Paper Series
Выпуск N за 2000 год
Опубликовано на портале: 05-10-2004Alan B. Krueger, Mikael Lindahl NBER Working Paper Series. 2000.
This paper tries to reconcile evidence from the microeconometric and empirical macro growth literatures on the effect of schooling on income and GDP growth. Much microeconometric evidence suggest that education is an important causal determinant of income for individuals within countries. At a national level, however, recent studies have found that increases in educational attainment are unrelated to economic growth. This finding appears to be a spurious result of the extremely high rate of measurement error in first-differenced cross-country education data. After accounting for measurement error, the effect of changes in educational attainment on income growth in cross-country data is at least as great as microeconometric estimates of the rate of return to years of schooling. Another finding of the macro growth literature - that economic growth depends positively on the initial stock of human capital - is shown to result from imposing linearity and constant-coefficient assumptions on the estimates. These restrictions are often rejected by the data, and once either assumption is relaxed the initial level of education has little effect on economic growth for the average country.
Опубликовано на портале: 13-10-2004Ricardo J. Caballero, Mohamad L. Hammour NBER Working Paper Series. 2000.
A growing body of new research has emphasized the macroeconomic consequences of transactional impediments in factor markets, and their role in the recurrent restructuring requirements of modern economies. We first review the function institutional arrangements play in facilitating transactions and explore the macroeconomic consequences of poor institutions. As an application, we discuss the lessons that can be learnt from observed changes in the nature of unemployment in Europe. We then analyze the effect the institutional environment can have on macroeconomic restructuring. In light of this framework we revisit the question of the relationship between recessions and restructuring activity, and review the recent evidence of reduced restructuring following recessions. We also discuss corroborating evidence from merger waves' in the restructuring of corporate assets.