Review of Income and Wealth
Опубликовано на портале: 12-12-2002Harry X. Wu Review of Income and Wealth. 2001. Vol. 47. No. 2.
This study critically evaluates alternative estimates of China's GDP level and growth, as well as its PPP GDP conversions, and, based on this evaluation, it draws important implications for the understanding of China's economic performance in both historical and international perspectives. It finds that although almost all empirical results have supported the downward-bias hypothesis for China's GDP level and the upward-bias hypothesis for China's GDP growth, they vary greatly, and that PPP estimates for China are also diversified. These estimates, if accepted, may substantially alter the existing views on the Chinese economy, particularly, its size, TFP level and catch-up performance. The discusion docuses on the theories, methodologies and data used in these studies, and particularly, the possible biases in their results thereby. It argues, however, that despite differences in estimates, they could still provide sensible boundaries for researchers to gauge the "real" values and hence assess China's "real" living standard and growth performance.
Опубликовано на портале: 12-12-2002Paul Schreyer Review of Income and Wealth. 2002. Vol. 48. No. 1. P. 15-32.
Methodologies to derive price indices for information and communication technology (ICT) products vary between national statistical offices. This may lead to significant differences in measured price changes for these products and there has been concern about the international comparability of volume growth rates of GDP between several OECD countries. This article discusses the possible consequences for measures of economic growth of replacing one set of price indices by another one in the framework of national accounts. It is argued that the issue of ICT deflators cannot be dealt with in isolation and several other factors have to be taken into account, in particular whether ICT products are final or intermediate products, whether they are imported or domestically produced and whether national accounts are set up with fixed or chain weighted index numbers. Overall, results point to modest effects at the aggregate GDP level but may be more significant when it comes to component measures such as volume growth of investment, or of output in particular industry.
Опубликовано на портале: 12-12-2002Branko Milanovic, Shlomo Yizhaki Review of Income and Wealth. 2002. Vol. 48. No. 2.
Using the national income/expenditure distribution data from 111 countries, we decompose total inequality between the individuals in the world, by continents and regions. We use Yitzhakis Gini decomposition which allows for an exact breakdown of the Gini. We find t hat Asia is the most heterogeneous continents; between-country inequality is much more important than inequality in incomes within countries. At the other extreme is Latin America where differences between the countries are small, but inequalities within the countries are large. Western Europe/North America is fairly homogeneous both in terms of countries mean incomes and income differences between individuals. If we divided the world population into three groups: The rich (those with incomes greater than Italys mean income), the poor (those with income less than Western countries poverty lie), and the middle class, we find that there are only 11 percent of people who are world middle class; 78 percent are poor, and 11 percent are rich.
How to compare apples and oragnes: Poverty measurement based on different definitions of consumption [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 12-12-2002Jean Olson Lanjouw, Peter Lanjouw Review of Income and Wealth. 2001. Vol. 47. No. 2.
Poverty rates calculated on the basis of household consumption expenditures are routinely compared across countries and time. The surveys which underlie these comparisons typically differ in the types of food and non-food expenditures included, often in ways which are easily overlooked by analysts. With several examples we demonstrate that these commonly occurring variations in expenditures definitions can give rise to marked differences in poverty rates where there are no real differences in well-being. We show that one approach to calculating poverty lines, used with headcount measurement of poverty, can allow comparisons based on data with different definitions of consumption. In addition to allowing comparative poverty analysis using existing survey data, the results suggest that poverty monitoring could be done effectively at lower cost by alternating detailed expenditures surveys with far more abbreviated surveys.
Опубликовано на портале: 12-12-2002Esben Dalgaard, Christopher Eff, Annette Thomsen Review of Income and Wealth. 2001. Vol. 47. No. 2.
The paper raises three questions. Firstly, it is warranted that a significant part of primary (property) income is not shown in the national accounts as being distributed to the owners of the assets to which it accrues but ends up as capital gains in the revaluation account? Secondly, why has the SNA chosen not to record reinvested earnings of corporations as flows of property income with the exception of foreign direct investment, and thirdly why the asymmetrical recording of stock investments constituting more than 10 percent of equity capital depending on whether domestic or foreign transactions are concerned? Reinvested earnings on domestic equity investment above 10 percent of a corporation are not recorded as property income in the system. The paper looks at these three questions from the perspective of the analytical uses of national accounts. The consequences for the analysis of income distribution both between nations and within nations are examined.