Journal of the Japanese and International Economies
Опубликовано на портале: 30-01-2003Masahiro Abe, Souichi Ohta Journal of the Japanese and International Economies. 2001. Vol. 15. No. 4. P. 437-464.
Throughout the 1990s, and particularly in the mid- to late-1990s, the Japanese employment situation went from bad to worse. We investigate the causes of rising unemployment in Japan, using data on individual workers from the Special Survey of the Labor Force between 1988 and 1999. This research focuses on the effect of labor market segmentation by industry on labor flows. Our findings reveal that unemployment in the construction industry and, more recently, in the service industry has contributed greatly to the national unemployment rate. We also find that most successful job transfers occur within the same industry, even though workers may experience some periods of unemployment. Finally, our results show that labor market conditions in each industry affect the probability that a worker will fall into unemployment as well as the probability that an unemployed worker will find new employment. These findings suggest that the Japanese labor market is segmented by industry and this segmentation contributed to the worsening unemployment in Japan.
The Competitive Impact of International Trade: The Case of Import Liberalization of the Japanese Oil Product Market [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 24-12-2003Nagaoka Sadao, Kumura Fukunari Journal of the Japanese and International Economies. 1999. No. 13. P. 397-423 .
This paper analyzes the competitive impact of the recent import liberalization of the Japanese oil product market. In response to the import liberalization in March 1996, not only did the market price of gasoline decline sharply but also its domestic production kept rising and did not decline relative to imports. Moreover, its price fell substantially before the actual liberalization of the import. This paper demonstrates both theoretically and empirically that the theory of implicit cartel can explain such features of the impact of import liberalization very well. The paper also identifies the significantly positive welfare impact of such liberalization due to the expansion of supply in a market with a large tax wedge between price and cost and, possibly more importantly, due to the transformation of competitive conduct from unproductive investment for cartel-rent shifting into price cuts.
The Relative Importance of Employer and Employee Effects on Compensation: A Comparison of France and the United States [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 05-01-2003John M. Abowd Journal of the Japanese and International Economies. 2001. Vol. 15. No. 4. P. 419-436.
Using individual data on compensation, matched with establishment and firm data on performance and inputs, authors compare the French and American pay systems. The compensation measures are decomposed into components related to measured individual characteristics, establishment enterprise effects, and a residual.
Опубликовано на портале: 30-01-2003Yuji Genda, Masako Kurosawa Journal of the Japanese and International Economies. 2001. Vol. 15. No. 4. P. 465-488.
Using retrospective data of young people's work experience in Japan, this paper found that initial labor market conditions, i.e., when workers first enter the labor market after permanently leaving school, have a significant lasting impact on the employment experiences of workers in their teens and twenties. An increase in the unemployment rate at the time of labor market entry reduces the probability of gaining full-time regular employment and, more important, increases the future probability of workers of leaving employers by lowering the quality of job matches. It was also found that the vocational guidance or recommendations workers received at school could be effective in raising the quality of job matches. The adverse effect of initial unemployment rates on employment opportunities was most profoundly observed among female college graduates.
Опубликовано на портале: 24-01-2004Michele Belot, Jan C. van Ours Journal of the Japanese and International Economies. 2001. Vol. 15. No. 4. P. 403-418.
The development of the unemployment rate differs substantially between OECD countries. In this paper we investigate to what extent these differences are related to labor market institutions. In our analysis we use data of eighteen OECD countries over the period 1960-1994 and show that the way in which institutions interact is important.
Опубликовано на портале: 11-01-2003David G. Blanchflower Journal of the Japanese and International Economies. 2001. Vol. 15. No. 4. P. 364-402.
The paper studies the labor markets of 23 transition countries from eastern and central EuropeAlbania, Armenia, Belarus, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, East Germany, Estonia, Georgia, Hungary, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Latvia, Lithuania Macedonia, Moldova, Poland, Romania, Russia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Ukraine, and Yugoslavia. It uses new micro-data from a large number of surveys on over 200,000 randomly sampled individuals from these countries for the years 19901997. The microeconometric structure of unemployment regression equations in the nations of eastern Europe appears to be similar to the industrialised west. Estimation of east European wage curves produces a local unemployment elasticity of between 0.1 and 0.3. This is somewhat larger in absolute terms than has been found elsewhere. On a variety of attitudinal measures, eastern Europeans said they were less contented than their western European counterparts. The strongest support for the changes that have occurred in eastern Europe is to be found among men, the young, the most educated, students, and the employed and particularly the self-employed. Support for market reforms is particularly low amongst the unemployed who were found to be particularly unhappy on two well-being measures