The Economic Journal
Опубликовано на портале: 22-09-2003Amparo Castelly, Rafael Domenech The Economic Journal. 2002. Vol. 112. No. 478. P. 187-200.
This paper provides new measures of human capital inequality for a broad panel of countries. Taking attainment levels from Barro and Lee (2001), we compute Gini coefficients and the distribution of education by quintiles for 108 countries over five-year intervals from 1960 to 2000. Using this new cross-country data on human capital inequality two main conclusions are obtained. First, most countries in the world have tended to reduce the inequality in human capital distribution. Second, human capital inequality measures provide more robust results than income inequality measures in the estimation of standard growth and investment equations.
Опубликовано на портале: 04-11-2004Kai-Uwe Kuhn, Jorge A. Padilla The Economic Journal. 2002. Vol. 112. No. 479. P. 317-343.
In this paper, we construct a new basis for insider--outsider theory that acknowledges that insiders are typically easier to organise, so that they can delegate their bargaining decisions to a representative if they want to. We show that harassment or discrimination of new workers by the insider work force is neither individually rational nor needed to explain union formation or inefficient hiring decisions. However, we show that there is a strong tendency for overemployment. Unions tend to increase the efficiency of hiring decisions although union contracts will look like inducing underemployment.