Journal of Comparative Economics
Gross Job Flows in Russian Industry Before and After Reforms: Has Destruction Become More Creative? [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 10-12-2002J. David Brown, John S. Earle Journal of Comparative Economics. 2002. Vol. 30. No. 1. P. 96-133.
This paper uses 1985-1999 manufacturing census data for old Russian enterprises to calculate the magnitude and productivity effects of gross job flow rates before and after reforms. Job creation was low throughout the period in this sector, but increased slightly during the transition, while job destruction rose markedly. Heterogeneity in firm employment change also increased significantly. Intra- and inter-sectoral job reallocation had no effect on aggregate labor productivity during the socialist period, while they have made a strong positive contribution during the transition. Privatization and product market competition have not led to greater job destruction overall, but rather have helped to focus the destruction in the firms with the lowest productivity.
Опубликовано на портале: 10-12-2002Jozef Konings, Hartmut Lehmann Journal of Comparative Economics. 2002. Vol. 30. No. 1. P. 134-159.
Using a unique enterprise-level data set, which covers the regions Moscow City, Chelyabinsk, Krasnoyarsk and Chuvashia and the three sectors manufacturing and mining, construction and trade and distribution, we estimate Russian labour demand equations for the year 1997. The most important conclusion that can be drawn is that labour demand is inelastic in international perspective if we estimate a labour demand equation for all regions and all sectors combined. So, Russian MLEs well into the transition still exhibit peculiar behaviour as far as wage employment trade-offs are concerned. We try to relate this inelastic labour demand to basic neoclassical theory by testing Marshalls rules of derived demand. Our results show that testing these rules seems a promising avenue for establishing some of the driving forces, which are behind labour demand in Russia.
Product market Competition in Transition Economies: Increasing Varieties and Consumer Loyalty [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 22-12-2003Mitsutoshi M. Adachi Journal of Comparative Economics. 2005. No. 28. P. 700-715.
This paper analyzes product market competition between foreign entrants and former SOEs in transition markets with respect to expansion of product variety and consumer loyalty formation. While the market share motive induces the more efficient foreign entrant to price aggressively, the extent of this behavior depends critically on its relative efficiency vis-a-vis the local incumbent. If the efficiency gap exceeds some threshold value, the entrant exploits increasingly its cost advantages by raising price rather than investing in market share. Our result suggests that immediate restructuring of former SOEs is important to realize fully the competitive benefits of opening local markets.
Опубликовано на портале: 22-09-2003Jianguo Wang, Xiaokai Yang Journal of Comparative Economics. 1996. Vol. 23. No. 1. P. 20-37.
This article investigates the implications of pursuit of relative utility for the equilibrium level of division of labor and trade dependence. Jianguo Wang's ("Pursuit of Relative Economic Standing," Ph.D. dissertation, Department of Economics, Monash University, 1993) approach to modeling pursuit of relative economic standing is applied to Xiaokai Yang's framework with consumer-producers, economies of specialization, and transaction costs (Yang, Xiaokai, J. Develop. Econom. 34, 1-2:199-222, Nov. 1990) in order to investigate the relationship between the pursuit of relative utility, transaction efficiency, and the level of division of labor. It is found that a stronger desire for relative utility has positive productivity implications and positive effects on the development of the division of labor if it narrows the differential between preferences for different goods or if it reduces the desire for a variety of a person's productive activities. That is to say, the consumption of relative position may or may not generate positive effects, depending on specific conditions.
Опубликовано на портале: 22-09-2003Alan de Brauw, Jikun Huang, Scott Rozelle, Linxiu Zhang, Xudong Zhang Journal of Comparative Economics. 2002. Vol. 30. No. 2. P. 329-353.
This paper contributes to the assessment of China's rural labor markets, while paying attention to whether these markets are developing in a manner conducive to the nation's modernization. According to our household survey, we find that the rapid increase in off-farm employment has continued and accelerated during the late 1990's. Our analysis shows that migration has become the most prevalent off-farm activity, has become dominated by young and better educated workers, has expanded most rapidly in areas that are relatively well-off, and has begun to draw workers from portions of the population, such as women, that earlier had been excluded from participation.
The Great Human Capital Reallocation: A Study of Occupational Mobility in Transitional Russia [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 10-12-2002Klara S. Sabirianova Journal of Comparative Economics. 2002. Vol. 30. No. 1. P. 191-217.
This paper employs the Russian Longitudinal Monitoring Survey, a nationwide panel, to inquire into the magnitude, determinants, and consequences of occupational mobility in Russia from 1985 to 1998. We show that the restructuring process increases the rate of occupational reallocation. Structural changes account for a substantial part of the increase in gross occupational flows. A model built in the paper outlines the major explanatory factors of increased mobility during transition. The empirical analysis demonstrates that the destruction of existing jobs and occupations and the creation of new opportunities are important explanations for increased occupational mobility in transitional Russia. The econometric results also indicate that the local outside opportunities and the scale of structural change largely determine the probability of occupational switching.
The New Comparative Economics [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 29-10-2008Simeon Djankov, Edward Ludwig Glaeser, Rafael La Porta, Florencio Lopez-de-Silanes, Andrei Shleifer Journal of Comparative Economics. 2003. Vol. 31. No. 4. P. 595-619.
In recent years, the field of comparative economics refocused on the comparison of capitalist economies. The theme of the new research is that institutions exert a profound influence on economic development. We argue that, to understand capitalist institutions, one needs to understand the basic tradeoff between the costs of disorder and those of dictatorship. We apply this logic to study the structure of efficient institutions, the consequences of colonial transplantation, and the politics of institutional choice.
Workers' Heterogeneity and Risk Aversion : a Segmentation Model of the Russian Labour Market. [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 08-12-2002Irena Grosfeld, Claudia Senik-Leygonie, Thierry Verdier Journal of Comparative Economics. 2001. Vol. 29. No. 2. P. 230-256.
This paper proposes an explanation of the puzzling coexistence of elements of inertia and dynamism on the Russian labour market. In a context of high uncertainty, risk averse and heterogeneous workers face a trade-off between wages and an insurance against risk o ered by the firm. The firm proposes a contract which includes a low monetary wage and the access to social services. Workers choose to accept the contract or to leave the firm. Their choice gives rise to an ex post segmentation : the most productive workers leave the firm and concentrate in the most productive firms; the less adapted workers remain in their initial firm where they accept to receive lower wages as a price for security. In this framework, wage arrears can be viewed as an element of an implicit contract between firms and less productive workers. We test the relevance of the model using a panel dataset containing 9233 Russian firms for 1993 - 1998 as well as a sub-sample for which we have information on firms' wage arrears.