American Journal of Economics and Sociology
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Norman Sedgley, Bruce Elmslie American Journal of Economics and Sociology. 2001. Vol. 60. No. 1. P. 101-121.
Urban economists have long recognized that space is economically important. Evidence of the importance of urban agglomeration and the offsetting effects of congestion are provided in a number of studies of productivity and wages. Little attention has been paid to this evidence in the economic growth literature. The new growth research focuses on technological change. The production function is extended for new ideas common to this research in a way that allows for congestion and agglomeration in innovation and the hypothesis that these forces are important in explaining innovation is tested. Strong evidence is found that agglomeration and congestion are important in explaining the vast differences in per capita patent rates across US states. This suggests an important new agenda in linking studies of urban economics with the rapidly advancing of endogenous growth.
An analysis of kin-provided child care in the context of intrafamily exchanges: Linking components of family support for parents raising young children [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Peter D. Brandon American Journal of Economics and Sociology. 2000. Vol. 59. No. 2. P. 191-216.
Previous models of the choice of kin-provided child care assumed that the presence of other forms of in-kind support from relatives nearby was inconsequential to estimating effects of economic and demographic factors on the decision to use kin-provided child care. Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of the Class of 1972, it is shown that this assumption is incorrect because use of kin-provided child care and intrafamily in-kind resource exchanges are interrelated. When the association between use of kin-provided child care and the presence of other family in-kind exchanges is ignored, it is shown that estimated effects for income, the price of child care, and maternal characteristics are underestimated. The findings provide a better understanding of why parents choose kin-provided child care by confirming that this decision is a part of a larger set of parental decisions about involvement in resource exchanges within extended families.
An empirical test of the institutionalist view on income inequality: Economic growth within the United States [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Carolyn B. Rodriguez American Journal of Economics and Sociology. 2000. Vol. 59. No. 2. P. 303-313.
The relationship between income inequality and economic growth within the US is analyzed using state level data. Income inequality in the US since 1960 is described. A two-step causal model is employed to test the institutionalist contention that income inequality leads to socio-political instability, which has a negative impact on economic progress. The empirical results offer support for the institutionalist view.
An Extension on the Traditional Theory of Customer Discrimination: Customers Versus Customers [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 23-09-2003Stephanie O. Crofton American Journal of Economics and Sociology. 2003. Vol. 62. No. 2. P. 319-.
This study provides an extension on the traditional theory of customer discrimination. The traditional theory looks at customer discrimination via a case in which customers discriminate against a certain type of employee. This paper considers a case of customer discrimination in which customers discriminate against another group of customers. This paper argues that if women choose to attend an all-women college, they are engaging in this previously unexamined form of customer discrimination. Economic theory predicts that firms catering to customers who discriminate will charge higher prices. Thus, this study tests for the existence of customer discrimination by estimating a tuition equation at women's colleges and coeducational schools using ordinary least squares and a dummy-interaction technique. This study finds that, all else held constant, women's colleges do charge higher tuition rates.
A note on the determinants of public dissatisfaction with government: Economic and political factors affecting the public's attitude toward government [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Richard J. Cebula, Chris Paul American Journal of Economics and Sociology. 2002. Vol. 61. No. 2. P. 495-501.
This study empirically identifies both the economic and political determinants of the public's dissatisfaction with government in the US. Using annual survey data on the public's dissatisfaction with government obtained for the years 1965-1996, it is found that the Vietnam War, Watergate, oil price shocks and higher federal marginal income tax rates resulted in elevated levels of the public's dissatisfaction with government, whereas increases in housing prices and a rising Dow Jones industrial average reduced the public's dissatisfaction with the government.
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002John Marangos American Journal of Economics and Sociology. 2002. Vol. 61. No. 1. P. 259-276.
The neoclassical model of transition from a centrally-administered socialist economic system to a market-based economic system was implemented in Russia and Eastern Europe. The neoclassical process took the form of either shock therapy or gradualism. However, each approach actually involved a combination of shock therapy and gradualist policies, making the distinction between the two approaches unfounded. In addition, both approaches suffered by the innate inadequacies of neoclassical economic analysis as being politically/institutionally naked. Both shock therapy supporters and gradualist neoclassical economists did not provide a specific process of institutional development, favoring a gradual market-driven institutional outcome. With regard to the political structure, democracy was inconsistent with shock therapy, while active state intervention during transition was inconsistent with the ultimate goal of the gradualist neoclassical economists of competitive capitalism.
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Lauchlan T. Munro American Journal of Economics and Sociology. 2001. Vol. 60. No. 4. P. 795-814.
This paper suggests that a principal-agent perspective may be one of several useful ways of analyzing the family. The principal-agent literature has so far ignored an important set of cases where the principal is incapable of defining and defending her own interests, and so is assigned an agent by law or custom. This paper applies principal-agent analysis to one such case, the family, where the child is taken as the principal and the parent is her agent. The principal-agent problem within families creates a prima facie case for certain state interventions to protect the interests of child-principals. The principal-agent perspective on the family sheds new light on two old debates: about provision of state welfare services in cash or in kind, and about user fees for social services.
Assessing the new synthesis of economics and sociology: Promising themes for contemporary analysts of economic life [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Dan Krier American Journal of Economics and Sociology. 1999. Vol. 58. No. 4. P. 669-696.
The emergence of the New Synthesis of economics and sociology is explored and analyzed in the context of the classical writings in economic sociology. The aim is not to provide an exhaustive survey, but rather a selective assessment that introduces the most important questions, answers, and contributions of this emerging and important specialized literature. An attempt is made to: 1. translate faithfully the internal logic of this active specialty field into a language and problematic that can be appreciated by non-specialists, 2. identify central assumptions and themes in the New Synthesis writings that seem particularly promising for the appreciation of contemporary economic happenings, and 3. indicate opportunities for the development of further theoretical richness by incorporating Old Synthesis approaches.
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Jocelyn F. Pixley American Journal of Economics and Sociology. 1999. Vol. 58. No. 4. P. 1091-1116.
New developments in the sociology of money are outlined. Certain aspects of Post Keynesian monetarism are highlighted and Keynesian concepts of emotions relative to economics and economic sociology are explored. Underdeveloped areas of discourse in both sociology and economics are identified and the resulting superficiality of references to money are examined.
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Nicole Woolsey Biggart, Richard P. Castanias American Journal of Economics and Sociology. 2001. Vol. 60. No. 2. P. 471-500.
Traditionally, economists have viewed social relations as friction or impediments to exchange and have excluded social relations from their analyses by assuming autonomous actors. Recently, however, a number of scholars - economists, sociologists, anthropologists, and other social scientists - have begun to discuss the numerous ways in which social arrangements both prompt and channel economic activity. Rational choice theory, social capital and network analysis, and agency and game theory, are among those approaches that consider the effects of social relations on economic action. In this paper, that discussion is extended by arguing that social relations can function as collateral or assurance that an economic transaction will proceed as agreed by the parties involved. Recent microeconomic theories are reviewed and how They might be developed following this observation, which is derived from sociological and anthropological studies of economic action and organizations.
Опубликовано на портале: 29-02-2004Raimo Tuomela American Journal of Economics and Sociology. 2003. Vol. 62. No. 1. P. 123-165.
Основной характеристикой социальных институтов, по мнению автора, является то, что они основаны на коллективном одобрении, принятии. Принятие какого-то принципа со стороны некоторых членов группы предполагает поддержание с их стороны соответствующего социального отношения (we-attitude). Члены группы должны быть привержены тому, что они приняли. Социальные институты рассматриваются как управляемые нормами социальные практики, которые дают практикам или некоторым элементам, входящим в эти практики, новый социальный и концептуальный статус. Это требует того, чтобы некоторые из норм были конститутивными в противоположность "случайно" регулирующим.
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Patrik Aspers American Journal of Economics and Sociology. 2001. Vol. 60. No. 2. P. 519-545.
The aim of this paper is to present the economic sociology of Vilfredo Pareto. It is argued that Pareto represents a mode of thinking that has not been used in economic sociology and barely considered in the other branches of sociology. The habitual bifurcation of Pareto into the economist and the sociologist is rejected. Pareto stresses the non-logical parts of human life, and he provides empirical examples of this in his writing. He was occupied with the dynamics in society as a result mainly of non-logical actions. It is shown how one may speak of a distinctly Paretian economic sociology, which primarily has its origin in his theoretical discussions. It is also shown that Pareto conducted empirical studies drawing from his version of economic sociology. Included is a presentation, as well as a discussion of Pareto's idea of rentiers and speculators, which is followed up by a more general discussion of economic types in the market.
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Jorg Guido Hulsmann American Journal of Economics and Sociology. 1999. Vol. 58. No. 4. P. 713-727.
One of the great achievements of economic science is the explanation of the benefits of the division of labor in market economies. However, despite its merits this utilitarian explanation is insufficient as an account for the widespread division of labor. This insufficiency stems from the normative shortcomings of the harmony-of-interests doctrine, which cannot justify the respect of private-property titles and, therefore, cannot explain on purely utilitarian grounds the fact that the division of labor is as widespread as it in fact is. Mariam Thalos has recently provided a partial solution to this problem by arguing that religious belief in God performs a public function that facilitates human cooperation. In critical elaboration of her thesis, the division of labor is explained by taking into account a different aspect of human reason, namely, discursive rationality.
Do reservation Native Americans vote with their feet?: A re-examination of Native American migration, 1985-1990 [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Elizabeth Zahrt Geib American Journal of Economics and Sociology. 2001. Vol. 60. No. 4. P. 815-827.
Native Americans suffer some of the highest rates of poverty and unemployment and the lowest rates of human capital attainment among racial minority groups in the United States, but economists undestand very little about the impact these conditions have on the migration patterns of Native Americans. In 1994, a seminal article on this topic appeared in this journal (Cehula and Belton 1994). In their article, the authors suggest that the low levels of human capital and poor conditions in Native American reservations should make Native American migration sensitive to interstate differences in AFDC spending levels. This parer refines their analysis by using micro-level rather than aggregate ddta, and by controlling for reservation residence and the impact of informal social safety nets in the source region.
Economic sociology in retrospect and prospect: In search of its identity within economics and sociology [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Milan Zafirovski American Journal of Economics and Sociology. 1999. Vol. 58. No. 4. P. 583-627.
Theory and research in the field of economic sociology have seen steady advancements in recent years. Economic sociology has become a legitimate branch of sociology as well as of economics. Nonetheless, the treatment of economic sociology in both modern economics and sociology leaves much to be desired. Various formal-terminological confusions and theoretical-substantive misconceptions are still present in the field. Some proposals for remedying this situation are advanced. In particular, clarifications are provided of and amendments to the current treatment of issues, such as the relationship between economics and sociology, the character of economic sociology, its links to economic theory, socio-economics, and rational choice theory, as well as the question of the old versus the new economic sociology. Special emphasis is placed on the relationships between economic sociology and rational choice theory, given the latter's claims to universality.