American Journal of Economics and Sociology
Edge cities and the viability of metropolitan economies: Contributions to flexibility and external linkages by new urban service environments [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002David L. McKee, Yosra A. McKee American Journal of Economics and Sociology. 2001. Vol. 60. No. 1. P. p. 171-184.
Economists have had little to say concerning the impact of Edge Cities in metropolitan complexes, much less about how they relate to the economy in general. The present paper is aimed at those concerns. It begins with a general overview of the Edge City concept as put forward by Joel Garreau. Following that it discusses metropolitan change in a pre-Edge City format. It then considers Edge Cities in the context of growth poles and discusses their role in providing economic linkages that facilitate change. The intent is to provide a better understanding of the impact of Edge cities upon host metropolitan areas and the economy at large.
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Lyn Spillman American Journal of Economics and Sociology. 1999. Vol. 58. No. 4. P. 1047-1071.
As economic sociologists have been arguing for some time, markets are not to be abstractly opposed to other social relations but rather to be understood as embedded in them, and indeed subject to the same kinds of analysis as other social relations. However, many accounts of embeddedness explain it in structural terms and still operate with an impoverished notion of culture. It is argued that there is a rich agenda for cultural investigation which has yet to be fully exploited in economic sociology, and fascinating work on economic embeddedness which could be enriched with more culturally oriented analysis and research. Three issues on this agenda which are more often collapsed are distinguished, arguing that the meaning of markets should be investigated in terms of the cultural construction of objects of market exchange, the cultural construction of parties to market exchange, and the cultural construction of norms of exchange.
Ethnic solidarity and black business: The case of ethnic beauty aids distributors in Chicago [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Robert M. Silverman American Journal of Economics and Sociology. 1999. Vol. 58. No. 4. P. 829-841.
The development of a separate economic niche for black entrepreneurs in Chicago's ethnic beauty aids industry is examined. It is argued that this economic niche developed in response to advantages black entrepreneurs had in mobilizing ethnic resources in the black community. The findings lend support to general theoretical arguments stating that ethnicity, race, and other symbols for identity function as low-cost screening devices for evaluating the likelihood that trading partners will honor economic contracts, particularly in a market setting where formal market mechanisms are not fully developed. The findings are based on a series of in-person interviews with Korean, Jewish and black distributors of ethnic beauty aids in Chicago.
Fiscal sociology: What for? [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 30-08-2005Jürgen G. Backhaus American Journal of Economics and Sociology. 2002. Vol. 61. No. 1. P. 55-77.
A short sketch of the history of thought of fiscal sociology is given. Main issues are identified. In discussing the concept of the tax state, issues in constitutional public finance are emphasized. One of the fields in which fiscal sociology has been most important is taxation, and notably income taxation. In citing applications and issues, an entire alphabet of fiscal sociological issues is identified. The future of the field in both instruction and research is also discussed.
Flexible working hours, family responsibilities, and female self-employment: Gender differences in self-employment selection [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Richard J. Boden American Journal of Economics and Sociology. 1999. Vol. 58. No. 1. P. 71-83.
Using cross-sectional data from the Contingent Work Survey of the February 1995 Current Population Survey, direct evidence is presented that there are substantial gender differences in the reasons why individuals become self-employed. In particular, women - especially women with young children - are more likely than men to cite flexibility of schedule and family-related reasons for becoming self-employed. Men's reasons for becoming self-employed show little association with their parental status. Findings suggest that employers should be encouraged to offer working conditions that are friendly to workers whose family obligations conflict with traditional, 40-hour-per-week jobs.
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Jorge Martinez-Vazquez, Felix Rioja, Samuel Skogstad American Journal of Economics and Sociology. 2001. Vol. 60. No. 2. P. 501-517.
Emerging economies in crisis typically request assistance from the International Monetary Fund (IMF). After evaluating the situation, the IMF makes a loan available to the country, conditional on certain policy reforms. Governments usually resist many of these measures and negotiation ensues. This paper analyzes the most contentious measures of IMF conditionally in the context of Russia after the August 1998 crisis. The most discussed measures include the budget deficit structural reforms, and exchange rate policy. The analysis suggests that to some extent the disagreement arose because the IMF is focused on changing steady states somewhat ignoring the transition path, while the Russian government is preoccupied with transitional dynamics without a clearly defined steady state concept.
Incentives and the work decisions of welfare recipients: Evidence from the panel survey of income dynamics, 1981-1988 [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Kevin Duncan American Journal of Economics and Sociology. 2000. Vol. 59. No. 3. P. 433-449.
The policy issue of work replacing welfare is examined through evidence derived from the Panel Survey of Income Dynamics (1981-1988). Results indicate that welfare recipients supplement the earnings from low paying occupations with public assistance. Further, this income strategy responds to changes in economic incentives. For example, higher wages are associated with a greater probability of working without a welfare subsidy while lower wages are associated with a higher probability of mixing welfare and work. These results underscore the importance of liveable wage levels in providing for a durable substitution of work for welfare. The results also support Solow's recommendations of packaging welfare and work for those who find their occupational choices limited to the lower end of the labor market.
Опубликовано на портале: 19-11-2005Rolf D. Cremer, Anne De Bruin, Ann Dupuis American Journal of Economics and Sociology. 2001. Vol. 60. No. 1. P. 377-401.
The growing emphasis on globalization has brought the analysis of global cities into sharp focus. The countervailing trend emphasizes the significance of the local. International sister-cities provide a site of analysis which illustrates the global-local interface and yet delves deeper. Providing an extension to an integrated approach to the study of sister-cities based on the multifold relationship between culture and commerce, this paper adds a further dimension by focusing on simultaneously operating multi-level entrepreneurial partnerships necessary to sustain active sister-city relationships. Drawing on New Zealand examples of twinning arrangements, it is demonstrated that the emergence and development of embedded partnership ties is vital to deriving sustainable economic and social benefits. A novel feature of this paper is the conceptualization of a hybrid form of entrepreneurialism, municipal-community entrepreneurship, which is argued as a valuable facilitator of the economic and social vibrancy of cities.
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002David Levy American Journal of Economics and Sociology. 1999. Vol. 58. No. 4. P. 729-747.
Is the well-known finding of experimental economics that talk is correlated with cooperation in prisoner-dilemma contexts related to Adam Smith's claim that trade requires language? Using Smith's postulate of the existence of a desire for approbation and the supposition that language carries approbation, it is demonstrated how the ability to exchange approbation enhances the rationality of cooperation.
Making the country work for the city: Von Thunen's ideas in geography, agricultural economics and the sociology of agriculture [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Daniel Block, Melanie E. DuPuis American Journal of Economics and Sociology. 2001. Vol. 60. No. 1. P. 79-98.
Von Thunen's Isolated State is a predictive model of how rural hinterlands organize agricultural production in relation to an urban center. Despite today's globalized food provisioning system, there are still some agricultural commodities that remain in US city hinterlands. The most prominent of these is milk. The spatial organization of dairying is therefore a topic in which von Thunen's notions of centrality are still pertinent. This paper will examine von Thunen and notions of centrality in the formulation of dairy policy in the US. His contribution has been very important to agricultural economists and agricultural geographers but less important to sociologists of agriculture, who see the spatial organization of food production around cities due as much to contingent, local political outcomes as to law-like notions of centrality.
Manufacturing and rural economies in the United States: The role of nondurable producers, labor costs and state taxes [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Mark Jelavich American Journal of Economics and Sociology. 2001. Vol. 60. No. 1. P. 185-192.
This paper investigates the preferences of manufacturers in deciding whether to locate in metropolitan or nonmetropolitan (rural) areas. Using 1997 state-level data and OLS regression estimation, it was determined that nondurable goods manufacturers prefer rural areas, while durable goods manufacturers are indifferent as to area. However, both sets of manufacturers prefer to locate in larger states. Wage rates are not significant in the regressions, while durable manufacturers appear sensitive to state taxes. Some policy conclusions for local economic developers are derived from these findings.
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Richard Grabowski American Journal of Economics and Sociology. 1999. Vol. 58. No. 4. P. 699-712.
An attempt is made to integrate the concepts of embedded exchange and impersonal exchange via the notion of integrated markets. The more integrated market exchange is, the more likely that each potential actor in the exchange process is linked to a large number of others. As a result, it is less likely that buyers and sellers will choose to cheat each other, and market exchange thrives. Integration occurs as a result of bridging structural holes in social networks and is carried out by entrepreneurial middlemen. Their activities are characterized by significant increasing returns to scale. Thus coordination is likely to be necessary for integrated markets to develop.
Max Weber as an economist and as a sociologist: Towards a fuller understanding of Weber's view of economics [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Richard Swedberg American Journal of Economics and Sociology. 1999. Vol. 58. No. 4. P. 561-582.
A picture of Max Weber as an economist is given, mainly by focusing on a text which he distributed to his students when he taught economics in the 1890s. Weber's work in economic sociology is outlined, relying primarily on Economy and Society and its central Chapter 2 (Sociological Categories of Economic Action). The differences between the approaches of economic theory and economic sociology, as seen by Weber, are summarized, and an account is given of some of Weber's most suggestive concepts in economic sociology. The question is raised as to when the analyst, according to Weber, should use economic sociology rather than economic theory, and vice versa. Weber's ideas about a broad economic science are also presented.
Modeling agglomeration and dispersion in city and country: Gunnar Myrdal, Francois Perroux, and the new economic geography [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Stephen J. Meardon American Journal of Economics and Sociology. 2001. Vol. 60. No. 1. P. 25-57.
The new economic geography is a recent body of literature that seeks to explain how resources and production come to be concentrated spatially for reasons other than the standard geographic ones. Some authors outside the new economic geography have criticized it a simplistic, irrelevant, or passe. They claim it employs overly abstract analysis, prioritizes mathematical technique over realistic explanation, and is reminiscent of the much earlier worlds of Gunnar Myrdal and Francois Perroux - in comparison to which, however, it falls short. This paper investigates the similarities and differences between the new economic geography and the work of Myrdal and Perroux. It examines how the techniques of analysis and intuitive explanations of agglomeration compare between these economic sociologists and the new economic geographers. The paper highlights what has been gained and what has been lost by the new economic geographers, who generally eschew interdisciplinary study.
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Jürgen G. Backhaus American Journal of Economics and Sociology. 1999. Vol. 58. No. 4. P. 1075-1090.
An attempt is made to put Georg Simmel's The Philosophy of Money into the context of current monetary discussions in economics. It is argued that Simmel is able to transcend subdisciplinary borders, to great benefit for today's scholar. It is shown that Simmel's approach, transgressing interdisciplinary borders, has merits even today. It is not monetary economics but constitutional political economy which is the unifying concept to explain the peculiar features of European monetary integration.