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American Journal of Economics and Sociology

Опубликовано на портале: 29-05-2004
Olav Velthuis American Journal of Economics and Sociology. 1999.  Vol. 58. No. 4. P. 629-649. 
In his early work, Talcott Parsons severely criticized Old Institutional Economists like Thorstein Veblen and Clarence Ayres. Parsons' main objection was that institutional economics had a misconceived view on the scope of economics: institutions, being the embodiment of values, were the proper subject of sociology rather than economics. By arguing for a clear-cut division of labor between economics and sociology, Parsons legitimated the divide between the two disciplines that came into being in the years to follow. Recently, however, the relationship between economic sociology and institutional economics has changed dramatically. New Economic Sociology rejects the division of labor proposed by Parsons. By providing substitutes rather than just complements to economics, it tries to counter economic imperialism. This creates significant similarities between New Economic Sociology, Old Institutional Economics and the recent return of institutionalism in economic theory.
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002
Fred E. Foldvary American Journal of Economics and Sociology. 2001.  Vol. 60. No. 1. P. 403-418. 
An alternative to centralized top-down city governance is a multi-level bottom-up structure based on small neighborhood contractual communities. This paper analyzes the voting rules and public finances of decentralized, contractual urban governance and the likely outcome of such a constitutional structure, substantially reduced transfer seeking or rent seeking. Tax and service substitution, with lower-level funding and services substituting for higher-level public finance, is the general process by which the governance would devolve. Land rent is the most feasible source of such decentralized public finance, and local communities could also engage in local currency and credit services. Some empirical examples demonstrate the implementation of some of these governance structures.
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002
Wilfred Dolfsma American Journal of Economics and Sociology. 1999.  Vol. 58. No. 4. P. 1019-1046. 
By consuming pop music, people want to express who they are, to which group they belong, what their identity is. People's identity, however and contrary to what many believe, is not strictly individual. Instead, people's identity is highly social and draws on the socio-cultural values (VALUES) in society - VALUES that become objectified or institutionalized and may thus be communicated to others. If such institutionalized socio-cultural values are not conceptualized, and if one is not able to understand how institutions work in signaling people's identity, one is not able to explain a phenomenon such as the advent of pop music. Ideas taken from institutional and social economics are applied and developed to understand the consumption of a symbolic good such as pop music.
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002
Jin Heum Park American Journal of Economics and Sociology. 1999.  Vol. 58. No. 1. P. 43-56. 
Evidence is found consistent with the hypothesis that English-speaking ability is an important determinant of earnings of immigrants in the US. Immigrants who do not speak English well acquire English proficiency as well as other skills, and experience faster earnings growth, than immigrants who are fluent in English. For those immigrants whose first language is English or who speak English very well, fluency in English is valuable because it facilitates the transfer to the US labor market of schooling and labor market experience obtained abroad. Documenting and studying the importance of local efforts to teach English to immigrants - such as the English as a second language classes offered by the Chinese American Civic Association, Jewish Vocational Services, and El Centro de Cardenal - will be an important future research task.
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002
Patrik Aspers American Journal of Economics and Sociology. 1999.  Vol. 58. No. 4. P. 651-667. 
The aim of this study is to present the economic sociology of Alfred Marshall (1842-1924). Three topics are discussed: 1. Marshall's ideas of how preferences are generated, 2. the theory of action, and 3. the introduction of a fourth factor of production, organization. It is argued that Marshall's approach encourages a closer connection between sociologists interested in economic phenomena and economists. This conclusion is strengthened because of the resemblance of Marshall's analysis to those offered by Max Weber and Thorstein Veblen.
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002
Mark Gius American Journal of Economics and Sociology. 1999.  Vol. 58. No. 4. P. 947-957. 
A combination of individual-level and county-level data is used to estimate an economic model of crime for young adults similar to that used by Becker (1968) and Trumbull (1989). In order to estimate a model of crime in which both individual-level and county-level data are used, it is necessary to take account of the bias introduced by using aggregate-level data in conjunction with individual-level data. In order to eliminate this bias, a technique derived by Moulton (1990) is employed. Results from a logit regression model indicate that race, sex, and peer pressure have statistically significant effects on the probability that a young adult will commit a crime. Results also suggest that police presence, as measured by county-level per capita police expenditures, does not deter young adults from committing crimes.
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002
Jill M. Hendrickson American Journal of Economics and Sociology. 2001.  Vol. 60. No. 4. P. 849-879. 
This paper focuses on understanding the role of interest groups and markets in influencing regulatory change. To that end, it first identities the interest groups surrounding the creation of legislation that separated commercial and investment banking in the 1930s and then identifies the interest groups involved in the more recent attempts to repeal the separation. Careful attention is also given to developments in the private market that affect the legislative process. This particular case study finds that existing orthodox economic and political science literature gives too much credit to interest groups and not enough credit to private market developments when analyzing policy development and reform.
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002
Anil Hira, Rona Hira American Journal of Economics and Sociology. 2000.  Vol. 59. No. 2. P. 267-282. 
It is suggested that the new institutionalism contains ambiguous and contradictory notions of change. By setting up a model that explains institutional constraints on decision makers, the new institutionalism correctly points out the limits of a rational choice framework of economic decision making. However, by failing to explain the sources and avenues of modifications of those constraints, the new institutionalism is unable to provide a satisfactory explanation of change. Instead, a patchwork of exogenous factors is found, such as technology, culture, and ideology, which feed into institutional change in unclear ways. Those factors for change should be examined directly, rather than through the proxy of institutions.
Опубликовано на портале: 23-09-2003
Frank A. Hindriks American Journal of Economics and Sociology. 2003.  Vol. 62. No. 1. P. 185-. 
Searle used to analyze institutional facts in terms of the constitutive rule. In his more elaborate account in The Construction of Social Reality he introduces the notion of a status function. The "counts as" locution is central to both the constitutive rule and the status function. The main question I ask is what role is left for the constitutive rule after the introduction of the status function. In order to answer this question, I start by analyzing the notion of a status function. An examination of the relation between status functions and the function of representation reveals that the former is a species of the latter. An exploration of the relation between status functions and collective acceptance reveals that Searle does not provide an argument as to why collective acceptance is required for institutional facts. Searle's new account goes beyond his old analysis of institutional facts in terms of the constitutive rule. Rather than declaring the notion to be redundant, Searle assigns the constitutive rule a new role: it is to account for the fact that there can be counterfeit instances of a subclass of institutions, including, for example, that of money. This subclass consists of institutions that are codified.
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002
Werner Onken American Journal of Economics and Sociology. 2000.  Vol. 59. No. 4. P. 609-622. 
Silvio Gesell (1862-1930) pioneered a version of the market economy that was about competitive entrepreneurship but not about capitalism. The financial interests of the hoarders of scarce bank financing and those leveraged with speculative land dealings were to be sacrificed for the greater good of a nation of free and enterprising men and women. Gesell was a radical reformer and quite a famous one, having received more than a respectful mention in John Maynard Keynes' The General Theory of Employment, Interest, and Money. Keynes dubbed Gesell a non-Marxian socialist. Gesell founded the Free Economy school, which is undergoing a renaissance today in Eastern Europe as a possible model for a redesigned transition economy.
Опубликовано на портале: 29-05-2004
Vladimir Kollontai American Journal of Economics and Sociology. 2002.  Vol. 61. No. 1. P. 217-232. 
This paper analyzes some of the problems created by a rapidly changing interaction between the political and the economic spheres in society. In periods of condensed social change this interaction is profoundly different from customary evolutionary developments. In Russia, various political economic concepts during the last century have led to profound shifts in economic mechanisms and structures (first toward a planned economy, later toward a market one). A knowledge of this experience (and the new problems that surface) might be useful if globalization, environmental issues and the transition to a post-industrial society should lead to periods of condensed socioeconomic change in the West.
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002
Vladimir Kollontai American Journal of Economics and Sociology. 2002.  Vol. 61. No. 1. P. 217-232. 
This paper analyzes some of the problems created by a rapidly changing interaction between the political and the economic spheres in society. In periods of condensed social change this interaction is profoundly different from customary evolutionary developments. In Russia, various political economic concepts during the last century have led to profound shifts in economic mechanisms and structures (first toward a planned economy, later toward a market one). A knowledge of this experience (and the new problems that surface) might be useful if globalization, environmental issues and the transition to a post-industrial society should lead to periods of condensed socioeconomic change in the West.
Опубликовано на портале: 23-09-2003
Hwei-Lin Chuang, Hsih-Yin Lee American Journal of Economics and Sociology. 2003.  Vol. 62. No. 2. P. 435-. 
This study empirically investigates women's work interruption behavior in Taiwan and this behavior's influence on women's earnings. The most striking finding from our analysis of women's work history patterns is that a husband's negative attitude toward a working wife will more greatly discourage his wife from attaching to the labor market than will the presence of young children in the family. Thus, it is critical to educate men to give up their traditional attitudes toward gender roles in order to raise the female labor force participation rate in Taiwan. As to the effect of work interruption on earnings, a depreciation rate of 2.8[percent] is found for women with at least a high-school level of education, while no penalty of foregone experience is shown for less-educated women. Since this depreciation effect may discourage women from re-entering the labor market, government programs encouraging self-employment should be helpful, as self-employed women find it easier to overcome the conflict between family obligations and work needs.
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002
Peter J. Boettke American Journal of Economics and Sociology. 1999.  Vol. 58. No. 3. P. 371-384. 
Since 1992, the rhetoric of Russian economic reformers has been one of full-speed ahead to a free-market economy. The reality, however, has diverged significantly from this rhetoric at both a broad rules of the game level and specific policy within rules level. The resulting ambiguity of the economic environment and the lingering effects of the previous system which is supposed to be reformed has led to a continued deterioration of the Russian economy. A modified defense of shock therapy as a path to a cure for Russia's economic malaise, as opposed to the cure itself, is offered.
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002
Sarah Maxwell American Journal of Economics and Sociology. 1999.  Vol. 58. No. 4. P. 999-1018. 
Social norms have been recognized as an important influence in long-term relational exchange between firms. It is argued that social norms are equally important in short-term discrete exchange that takes place between firms and consumers. The norms of consumer exchange are, however, of a different kind. To clarify the difference, a classification system is presented. Based on the classification, the social norms of discrete consumer exchange are defined and a method of quantifying these norms is proposed.