American Journal of Economics and Sociology
The structure of sprawl: Identifying and characterizing employment centers in polycentric metropolitan areas [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Nathan B. Anderson, William T. Bogart American Journal of Economics and Sociology. 2001. Vol. 60. No. 1. P. 147-169.
This paper applies a consistent framework to four comparably sized metropolitan areas to identify and characterize their employment centers. Employment centers are identified as places that exceed a threshold employment density and a threshold employment level. They are also characterized as specializing on the basis of location quotient analysis. Clear evidence was found of specialization in every employment center in the four metropolitan areas studied. The interpretation is that what is observed is a systematic change in metropolitan structure rather than a random sprawling of firms. Evidence was also found that the size distribution of employment centers follows the rank-size rule. This suggests that there is structure not only in the distribution of economic activity among the employment centers but also in their size distribution.
The uses of authority in Economics: Shared intellectual frameworks as the foundation of personal persuasion [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Morgan Marietta, Mark Perlman American Journal of Economics and Sociology. 2000. Vol. 59. No. 2. P. 151-189.
The answer to the questions about what economists believe and why they do not all believe the same things revolves around the nature, variety, and uses of authority in economics. The data used are the various frameworks that economists, knowingly and unknowingly, employ to formulate their questions and organize their intellectual endeavors. These devices are called patristic traditions, or cultural and intellectual frameworks, or governing legacies, or several other phrases. They all connote authority systems, traceable to specific intellectual or cultural precursors, or authorities. The central proposition is that the specific set of governing legacies that each individual economist possesses effectively guides his or her thinking. By recognizing these authorities it is possible to more effectively understand others' minds and increase the ability to persuade.
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Bradley T. Ewing American Journal of Economics and Sociology. 2000. Vol. 59. No. 3. P. 419-432.
New empirical evidence is provided about the existence of a Catholic wage premium. A simple allocation-of-time model provides two explanations for the observation that those persons raised in the Catholic religion earn more than their non-Catholic counterparts. The Catholic religion may add to a person's stock of human capital and/or it may act as a signal of desirable labor market characteristics such as discipline, honesty, trustworthiness, and high motivation.
The worldwide movement in private universities: Revolutionary growth in post-secondary higher education [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Munir Quddus, Salim Rashid American Journal of Economics and Sociology. 2000. Vol. 59. No. 3. P. 487-516.
An attempt is made to analyze the phenomenon of new private universities in non-Western nations, focusing on the developing world in general, and Asia in particular. Within the context of a few case studies that reflect the breadth and diversity of this revolutionary growth in post-secondary higher education, an attempt is made to answer, among other things, questions about these institutions' missions, the models they are following, the challenges they face, how they are coping with their relationship to existing public universities, and how they are dealing with tuition and budgetary issues.
Toward capitalism or away from Russia? Early stage of post-Soviet economic reforms in Belarus and the Baltics [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Andrew Savchenko American Journal of Economics and Sociology. 2002. Vol. 61. No. 1. P. 233-257.
While at the start of systemic economic transformations in Eastern Europe, both indigenous reformers and Western observers tended to interpret the events as a rationally conceived and executed replacement of an economic system of inferior performance by another one whose superiority was proven, the developments that followed the disintegration of the Soviet polity did not support this view. Shortly after the former Soviet republics gained independence, they exhibited marked variations in speed and sometimes direction of market transformation that could not be satisfactorily explained within the framework of economic theories used by promoters of reforms. This paper compares the early stages of economic transformation in Belarus, where reforms were eventually abandoned, with the three Baltic states (Latvia, Lithuania, Estonia), which are the most successful emerging market economies among the former Soviet republics. Non-economic factors that might have contributed to this difference are highlighted.
Towards a synthesis of transaction cost economics and a feminist oriented network anaylsis: An application to women's street commerce [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Anne De Bruin, Ann Dupuis American Journal of Economics and Sociology. 1999. Vol. 58. No. 4. P. 807-827.
The possibility of an interdisciplinary, tripartite merger of transaction cost economics and the concept of embeddedness with feminist insights is suggested. It is demonstrated that in isolation, a simple application of transaction cost analysis can offer an adequate explanation of economic activity. The explanatory power of this approach however, is enhanced when complemented by greater recognition of the importance of the social context in which economic activity occurs. Research from New Zealand's largest street market is used to examine women's work in street commerce, a sub-sector of the informal sector. Aspects of transaction cost analysis are applied to activities of women market vendors. It is proposed that the approach taken which considers the embeddedness of economic activity in ongoing networks of social relations, and the intertwining of economic with non-economic goals, is compatible with aspects of feminism.
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Ning Wang American Journal of Economics and Sociology. 1999. Vol. 58. No. 4. P. 783-805.
Drawing upon the development of fish markets in a Chinese fishery community, the impact of transaction costs on the institutional structure of exchange is investigated. Fish markets in this region are connected and organized into a hierarchical network. This structure of fish markets dramatically reduces the cost for geographically distanced fishermen and consumers to execute trades. However, the provision of the market itself requires entrepreneurial efforts. The market is conceptualized as a continuum of middlemen, whose entrepreneurial efforts of buying and selling make the market work. When the middleman makes profits, the market is at work. Otherwise, the market fails to emerge. Comparing the different ways of organizing fish transportation at two distinct villages, it is shown that the choice of the market or the firm to organize fish transportation is determined by the cost of putting the market to work.
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Jack Birner, Ragip Ege American Journal of Economics and Sociology. 1999. Vol. 58. No. 4. P. 749-780.
Emil Durkheim published The Division of Labour in Society as part of his strategy to create a place for sociology as a science independent from economics. The book describes how social cohesion and cooperation evolve spontaneously in the course of the process of the division of labor. Freidrich Hayek developed a theory of markets and competition which was later extended into a theory of society, in which spontaneous evolution is a central element. The main force behind this process is competition and the evolution of coordination. Both authors address the problem of social stability. Hayek rejects Durkheim's analysis as constructivistic, but his criticism is unjustified. Further analysis reveals many similarities between the two authors' theories of societal evolution.
Опубликовано на портале: 23-09-2003David Dequech American Journal of Economics and Sociology. 2003. Vol. 62. No. 3. P. 509-.
The paper discusses the role of uncertainty in economic sociology, aiming to clarify some controversial issues in the related literature. Initially,some conceptual remarks are made about the relation between economic sociology, neoclassical economics, and rational choice theory. Next, in light of the existing literature on uncertainty and economic sociology, we distinguish between complexity and different types of uncertainty. We also identify different versions of the maximization hypothesis and examine their relations to the different types of uncertainty. Then we defend a concept of fundamental uncertainty that emphasizes the role of institutions. A theory that combines fundamental uncertainty and institutions should emphasize not only the existence of behavior in accordance with institutions, but also the possibility of creative, bold, unconventional behavior, discussed next, as people may use the knowledge provided by institutions to go against the tide. Finally, we suggest that the primary distinction should be that between approaches to economic issues, not between disciplines.
Using occupational preference in estimating market wage discrimination: The case of the gender pay gap-decomposition of a reduced-form wage equation [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Eric J. Solberg American Journal of Economics and Sociology. 1999. Vol. 58. No. 1. P. 85-113.
Past occupational preference is used to estimate the gender pay gap. The use of predetermined variables in a reduced-form wage equation avoids the bias caused by using variables that are correlated with the random error. Using a gender coefficient, the potential discriminatory gap is about 11.5% when past occupational preference is included. Decomposition yields an estimate of 10.5% when past occupational preference is included. In both cases, the discriminatory gap is close to that obtained when actual occupation is included. This suggests public policy directed toward reducing hiring discrimination by gender might be misdirected.
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Jan-Peter Olters American Journal of Economics and Sociology. 2002. Vol. 61. No. 1. P. 79-102.
Elections, often to a considerable degree, influence the fiscal policies of governments installed on the basis of their results. Yet, economists have tended to view politicians' behavior either as being determined exogenously or as the result of a social planner's maximization of a well-defined social-welfare function (subject to some appropriate technology and resource constraints). On the basis of explicit microeconomic foundations and a democratically coordinated decision-making mechanism over the optimal provision of public goods and the corresponding taxes required to finance them, this paper will introduce a simple economic model of politics that subjects individuals to a two-tiered political decision-making process over party membership and electoral participation, thereby endogenizing the evolution of the competing parties' ideologies, households' electoral behavior, and the key factors explaining the design of fiscal policies. Having the majority party's median delegate determine on the optimal degree of income redistribution suggests that a country's wealth distribution is a crucial explanatory variable explaining its politico-economic development path.