American Journal of Economics and Sociology
Assessing the new synthesis of economics and sociology: Promising themes for contemporary analysts of economic life [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Dan Krier American Journal of Economics and Sociology. 1999. Vol. 58. No. 4. P. 669-696.
The emergence of the New Synthesis of economics and sociology is explored and analyzed in the context of the classical writings in economic sociology. The aim is not to provide an exhaustive survey, but rather a selective assessment that introduces the most important questions, answers, and contributions of this emerging and important specialized literature. An attempt is made to: 1. translate faithfully the internal logic of this active specialty field into a language and problematic that can be appreciated by non-specialists, 2. identify central assumptions and themes in the New Synthesis writings that seem particularly promising for the appreciation of contemporary economic happenings, and 3. indicate opportunities for the development of further theoretical richness by incorporating Old Synthesis approaches.
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Jocelyn F. Pixley American Journal of Economics and Sociology. 1999. Vol. 58. No. 4. P. 1091-1116.
New developments in the sociology of money are outlined. Certain aspects of Post Keynesian monetarism are highlighted and Keynesian concepts of emotions relative to economics and economic sociology are explored. Underdeveloped areas of discourse in both sociology and economics are identified and the resulting superficiality of references to money are examined.
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Jorg Guido Hulsmann American Journal of Economics and Sociology. 1999. Vol. 58. No. 4. P. 713-727.
One of the great achievements of economic science is the explanation of the benefits of the division of labor in market economies. However, despite its merits this utilitarian explanation is insufficient as an account for the widespread division of labor. This insufficiency stems from the normative shortcomings of the harmony-of-interests doctrine, which cannot justify the respect of private-property titles and, therefore, cannot explain on purely utilitarian grounds the fact that the division of labor is as widespread as it in fact is. Mariam Thalos has recently provided a partial solution to this problem by arguing that religious belief in God performs a public function that facilitates human cooperation. In critical elaboration of her thesis, the division of labor is explained by taking into account a different aspect of human reason, namely, discursive rationality.
Economic sociology in retrospect and prospect: In search of its identity within economics and sociology [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Milan Zafirovski American Journal of Economics and Sociology. 1999. Vol. 58. No. 4. P. 583-627.
Theory and research in the field of economic sociology have seen steady advancements in recent years. Economic sociology has become a legitimate branch of sociology as well as of economics. Nonetheless, the treatment of economic sociology in both modern economics and sociology leaves much to be desired. Various formal-terminological confusions and theoretical-substantive misconceptions are still present in the field. Some proposals for remedying this situation are advanced. In particular, clarifications are provided of and amendments to the current treatment of issues, such as the relationship between economics and sociology, the character of economic sociology, its links to economic theory, socio-economics, and rational choice theory, as well as the question of the old versus the new economic sociology. Special emphasis is placed on the relationships between economic sociology and rational choice theory, given the latter's claims to universality.
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Lyn Spillman American Journal of Economics and Sociology. 1999. Vol. 58. No. 4. P. 1047-1071.
As economic sociologists have been arguing for some time, markets are not to be abstractly opposed to other social relations but rather to be understood as embedded in them, and indeed subject to the same kinds of analysis as other social relations. However, many accounts of embeddedness explain it in structural terms and still operate with an impoverished notion of culture. It is argued that there is a rich agenda for cultural investigation which has yet to be fully exploited in economic sociology, and fascinating work on economic embeddedness which could be enriched with more culturally oriented analysis and research. Three issues on this agenda which are more often collapsed are distinguished, arguing that the meaning of markets should be investigated in terms of the cultural construction of objects of market exchange, the cultural construction of parties to market exchange, and the cultural construction of norms of exchange.
Ethnic solidarity and black business: The case of ethnic beauty aids distributors in Chicago [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Robert M. Silverman American Journal of Economics and Sociology. 1999. Vol. 58. No. 4. P. 829-841.
The development of a separate economic niche for black entrepreneurs in Chicago's ethnic beauty aids industry is examined. It is argued that this economic niche developed in response to advantages black entrepreneurs had in mobilizing ethnic resources in the black community. The findings lend support to general theoretical arguments stating that ethnicity, race, and other symbols for identity function as low-cost screening devices for evaluating the likelihood that trading partners will honor economic contracts, particularly in a market setting where formal market mechanisms are not fully developed. The findings are based on a series of in-person interviews with Korean, Jewish and black distributors of ethnic beauty aids in Chicago.
Flexible working hours, family responsibilities, and female self-employment: Gender differences in self-employment selection [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Richard J. Boden American Journal of Economics and Sociology. 1999. Vol. 58. No. 1. P. 71-83.
Using cross-sectional data from the Contingent Work Survey of the February 1995 Current Population Survey, direct evidence is presented that there are substantial gender differences in the reasons why individuals become self-employed. In particular, women - especially women with young children - are more likely than men to cite flexibility of schedule and family-related reasons for becoming self-employed. Men's reasons for becoming self-employed show little association with their parental status. Findings suggest that employers should be encouraged to offer working conditions that are friendly to workers whose family obligations conflict with traditional, 40-hour-per-week jobs.
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002David Levy American Journal of Economics and Sociology. 1999. Vol. 58. No. 4. P. 729-747.
Is the well-known finding of experimental economics that talk is correlated with cooperation in prisoner-dilemma contexts related to Adam Smith's claim that trade requires language? Using Smith's postulate of the existence of a desire for approbation and the supposition that language carries approbation, it is demonstrated how the ability to exchange approbation enhances the rationality of cooperation.
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Richard Grabowski American Journal of Economics and Sociology. 1999. Vol. 58. No. 4. P. 699-712.
An attempt is made to integrate the concepts of embedded exchange and impersonal exchange via the notion of integrated markets. The more integrated market exchange is, the more likely that each potential actor in the exchange process is linked to a large number of others. As a result, it is less likely that buyers and sellers will choose to cheat each other, and market exchange thrives. Integration occurs as a result of bridging structural holes in social networks and is carried out by entrepreneurial middlemen. Their activities are characterized by significant increasing returns to scale. Thus coordination is likely to be necessary for integrated markets to develop.
Max Weber as an economist and as a sociologist: Towards a fuller understanding of Weber's view of economics [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Richard Swedberg American Journal of Economics and Sociology. 1999. Vol. 58. No. 4. P. 561-582.
A picture of Max Weber as an economist is given, mainly by focusing on a text which he distributed to his students when he taught economics in the 1890s. Weber's work in economic sociology is outlined, relying primarily on Economy and Society and its central Chapter 2 (Sociological Categories of Economic Action). The differences between the approaches of economic theory and economic sociology, as seen by Weber, are summarized, and an account is given of some of Weber's most suggestive concepts in economic sociology. The question is raised as to when the analyst, according to Weber, should use economic sociology rather than economic theory, and vice versa. Weber's ideas about a broad economic science are also presented.
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Jürgen G. Backhaus American Journal of Economics and Sociology. 1999. Vol. 58. No. 4. P. 1075-1090.
An attempt is made to put Georg Simmel's The Philosophy of Money into the context of current monetary discussions in economics. It is argued that Simmel is able to transcend subdisciplinary borders, to great benefit for today's scholar. It is shown that Simmel's approach, transgressing interdisciplinary borders, has merits even today. It is not monetary economics but constitutional political economy which is the unifying concept to explain the peculiar features of European monetary integration.
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Franz Ritzmann American Journal of Economics and Sociology. 1999. Vol. 58. No. 2. P. 167-192.
From Rice Vaughan (1675): The first Invention of Money was for a Pledge and instead of a Surety" to John Manyard Keynes (1937): Our desire to hold money as a store of wealth is a barometer of the degree of our distrust, there is a tradition of monetary theory linking the demand for money with the state of confidence. In the early 19th century, Henry Thornton and Thomas Attwood analyzed the shifts in precautionary demand for money and their implications for money supply, production, employment, and the balance of payments. The tradition was interrupted during the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries and was subsequently revived by Keynes's General Theory.
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Arthur A. Goldsmith American Journal of Economics and Sociology. 1999. Vol. 58. No. 4. P. 865-883.
The international community is redoubling efforts to curb political corruption in the developing and transitional economies. The consensus now is that the abuse of public office stunts economic growth, replacing a formerly dominant view that the effect is neutral or positive. Corruption's political correlates, however, are seldom studied empirically. Using Transparency International's recently developed index of perceived corruption, the issue is explored by regression analysis in a sample of less-developed countries. Economic liberalization, political democratization, and administrative centralization are associated with lower degrees of political corruption.
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Michael Davern American Journal of Economics and Sociology. 1999. Vol. 58. No. 4. P. 843-864.
Several hypotheses are derived that relate social networks to the occupational prestige attainment process. These hypotheses are evaluated using theoretically derived indicators and ordinary least squares regression. Most of the hypotheses considered do not receive support, and the one hypothesis that does lacks a consistent theoretical explanation. From this analysis, two important conclusions are drawn: 1. The relationship between the prestige of a social network contact and prestige attainment may be empirically strong, but the theoretical explanation linking them lacks consistency. 2. Empirical work performed to test social network theories should no longer focus on dyadic data alone. The broader implications of these conclusions for future research are considered.
The changing relationship between economic sociology and institutional economics: From Talcott Parsons to Mark Granovetter [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 29-05-2004Olav Velthuis American Journal of Economics and Sociology. 1999. Vol. 58. No. 4. P. 629-649.
In his early work, Talcott Parsons severely criticized Old Institutional Economists like Thorstein Veblen and Clarence Ayres. Parsons' main objection was that institutional economics had a misconceived view on the scope of economics: institutions, being the embodiment of values, were the proper subject of sociology rather than economics. By arguing for a clear-cut division of labor between economics and sociology, Parsons legitimated the divide between the two disciplines that came into being in the years to follow. Recently, however, the relationship between economic sociology and institutional economics has changed dramatically. New Economic Sociology rejects the division of labor proposed by Parsons. By providing substitutes rather than just complements to economics, it tries to counter economic imperialism. This creates significant similarities between New Economic Sociology, Old Institutional Economics and the recent return of institutionalism in economic theory.