American Journal of Economics and Sociology
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Norman Sedgley, Bruce Elmslie American Journal of Economics and Sociology. 2001. Vol. 60. No. 1. P. 101-121.
Urban economists have long recognized that space is economically important. Evidence of the importance of urban agglomeration and the offsetting effects of congestion are provided in a number of studies of productivity and wages. Little attention has been paid to this evidence in the economic growth literature. The new growth research focuses on technological change. The production function is extended for new ideas common to this research in a way that allows for congestion and agglomeration in innovation and the hypothesis that these forces are important in explaining innovation is tested. Strong evidence is found that agglomeration and congestion are important in explaining the vast differences in per capita patent rates across US states. This suggests an important new agenda in linking studies of urban economics with the rapidly advancing of endogenous growth.
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Lauchlan T. Munro American Journal of Economics and Sociology. 2001. Vol. 60. No. 4. P. 795-814.
This paper suggests that a principal-agent perspective may be one of several useful ways of analyzing the family. The principal-agent literature has so far ignored an important set of cases where the principal is incapable of defining and defending her own interests, and so is assigned an agent by law or custom. This paper applies principal-agent analysis to one such case, the family, where the child is taken as the principal and the parent is her agent. The principal-agent problem within families creates a prima facie case for certain state interventions to protect the interests of child-principals. The principal-agent perspective on the family sheds new light on two old debates: about provision of state welfare services in cash or in kind, and about user fees for social services.
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Nicole Woolsey Biggart, Richard P. Castanias American Journal of Economics and Sociology. 2001. Vol. 60. No. 2. P. 471-500.
Traditionally, economists have viewed social relations as friction or impediments to exchange and have excluded social relations from their analyses by assuming autonomous actors. Recently, however, a number of scholars - economists, sociologists, anthropologists, and other social scientists - have begun to discuss the numerous ways in which social arrangements both prompt and channel economic activity. Rational choice theory, social capital and network analysis, and agency and game theory, are among those approaches that consider the effects of social relations on economic action. In this paper, that discussion is extended by arguing that social relations can function as collateral or assurance that an economic transaction will proceed as agreed by the parties involved. Recent microeconomic theories are reviewed and how They might be developed following this observation, which is derived from sociological and anthropological studies of economic action and organizations.
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Patrik Aspers American Journal of Economics and Sociology. 2001. Vol. 60. No. 2. P. 519-545.
The aim of this paper is to present the economic sociology of Vilfredo Pareto. It is argued that Pareto represents a mode of thinking that has not been used in economic sociology and barely considered in the other branches of sociology. The habitual bifurcation of Pareto into the economist and the sociologist is rejected. Pareto stresses the non-logical parts of human life, and he provides empirical examples of this in his writing. He was occupied with the dynamics in society as a result mainly of non-logical actions. It is shown how one may speak of a distinctly Paretian economic sociology, which primarily has its origin in his theoretical discussions. It is also shown that Pareto conducted empirical studies drawing from his version of economic sociology. Included is a presentation, as well as a discussion of Pareto's idea of rentiers and speculators, which is followed up by a more general discussion of economic types in the market.
Do reservation Native Americans vote with their feet?: A re-examination of Native American migration, 1985-1990 [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Elizabeth Zahrt Geib American Journal of Economics and Sociology. 2001. Vol. 60. No. 4. P. 815-827.
Native Americans suffer some of the highest rates of poverty and unemployment and the lowest rates of human capital attainment among racial minority groups in the United States, but economists undestand very little about the impact these conditions have on the migration patterns of Native Americans. In 1994, a seminal article on this topic appeared in this journal (Cehula and Belton 1994). In their article, the authors suggest that the low levels of human capital and poor conditions in Native American reservations should make Native American migration sensitive to interstate differences in AFDC spending levels. This parer refines their analysis by using micro-level rather than aggregate ddta, and by controlling for reservation residence and the impact of informal social safety nets in the source region.
Edge cities and the viability of metropolitan economies: Contributions to flexibility and external linkages by new urban service environments [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002David L. McKee, Yosra A. McKee American Journal of Economics and Sociology. 2001. Vol. 60. No. 1. P. p. 171-184.
Economists have had little to say concerning the impact of Edge Cities in metropolitan complexes, much less about how they relate to the economy in general. The present paper is aimed at those concerns. It begins with a general overview of the Edge City concept as put forward by Joel Garreau. Following that it discusses metropolitan change in a pre-Edge City format. It then considers Edge Cities in the context of growth poles and discusses their role in providing economic linkages that facilitate change. The intent is to provide a better understanding of the impact of Edge cities upon host metropolitan areas and the economy at large.
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Jorge Martinez-Vazquez, Felix Rioja, Samuel Skogstad American Journal of Economics and Sociology. 2001. Vol. 60. No. 2. P. 501-517.
Emerging economies in crisis typically request assistance from the International Monetary Fund (IMF). After evaluating the situation, the IMF makes a loan available to the country, conditional on certain policy reforms. Governments usually resist many of these measures and negotiation ensues. This paper analyzes the most contentious measures of IMF conditionally in the context of Russia after the August 1998 crisis. The most discussed measures include the budget deficit structural reforms, and exchange rate policy. The analysis suggests that to some extent the disagreement arose because the IMF is focused on changing steady states somewhat ignoring the transition path, while the Russian government is preoccupied with transitional dynamics without a clearly defined steady state concept.
Опубликовано на портале: 19-11-2005Rolf D. Cremer, Anne De Bruin, Ann Dupuis American Journal of Economics and Sociology. 2001. Vol. 60. No. 1. P. 377-401.
The growing emphasis on globalization has brought the analysis of global cities into sharp focus. The countervailing trend emphasizes the significance of the local. International sister-cities provide a site of analysis which illustrates the global-local interface and yet delves deeper. Providing an extension to an integrated approach to the study of sister-cities based on the multifold relationship between culture and commerce, this paper adds a further dimension by focusing on simultaneously operating multi-level entrepreneurial partnerships necessary to sustain active sister-city relationships. Drawing on New Zealand examples of twinning arrangements, it is demonstrated that the emergence and development of embedded partnership ties is vital to deriving sustainable economic and social benefits. A novel feature of this paper is the conceptualization of a hybrid form of entrepreneurialism, municipal-community entrepreneurship, which is argued as a valuable facilitator of the economic and social vibrancy of cities.
Making the country work for the city: Von Thunen's ideas in geography, agricultural economics and the sociology of agriculture [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Daniel Block, Melanie E. DuPuis American Journal of Economics and Sociology. 2001. Vol. 60. No. 1. P. 79-98.
Von Thunen's Isolated State is a predictive model of how rural hinterlands organize agricultural production in relation to an urban center. Despite today's globalized food provisioning system, there are still some agricultural commodities that remain in US city hinterlands. The most prominent of these is milk. The spatial organization of dairying is therefore a topic in which von Thunen's notions of centrality are still pertinent. This paper will examine von Thunen and notions of centrality in the formulation of dairy policy in the US. His contribution has been very important to agricultural economists and agricultural geographers but less important to sociologists of agriculture, who see the spatial organization of food production around cities due as much to contingent, local political outcomes as to law-like notions of centrality.
Manufacturing and rural economies in the United States: The role of nondurable producers, labor costs and state taxes [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Mark Jelavich American Journal of Economics and Sociology. 2001. Vol. 60. No. 1. P. 185-192.
This paper investigates the preferences of manufacturers in deciding whether to locate in metropolitan or nonmetropolitan (rural) areas. Using 1997 state-level data and OLS regression estimation, it was determined that nondurable goods manufacturers prefer rural areas, while durable goods manufacturers are indifferent as to area. However, both sets of manufacturers prefer to locate in larger states. Wage rates are not significant in the regressions, while durable manufacturers appear sensitive to state taxes. Some policy conclusions for local economic developers are derived from these findings.
Modeling agglomeration and dispersion in city and country: Gunnar Myrdal, Francois Perroux, and the new economic geography [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Stephen J. Meardon American Journal of Economics and Sociology. 2001. Vol. 60. No. 1. P. 25-57.
The new economic geography is a recent body of literature that seeks to explain how resources and production come to be concentrated spatially for reasons other than the standard geographic ones. Some authors outside the new economic geography have criticized it a simplistic, irrelevant, or passe. They claim it employs overly abstract analysis, prioritizes mathematical technique over realistic explanation, and is reminiscent of the much earlier worlds of Gunnar Myrdal and Francois Perroux - in comparison to which, however, it falls short. This paper investigates the similarities and differences between the new economic geography and the work of Myrdal and Perroux. It examines how the techniques of analysis and intuitive explanations of agglomeration compare between these economic sociologists and the new economic geographers. The paper highlights what has been gained and what has been lost by the new economic geographers, who generally eschew interdisciplinary study.
Social inequality and the sociology of life style: Material and cultural aspects of social stratification [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Dieter Bogenhold American Journal of Economics and Sociology. 2001. Vol. 60. No. 4. P. 829-847.
The rising importance of dimensions such as age, gender, nationality, ethnicity, political attitudes, and multiple choices to organize the notion of life course has made the older class concept appear obsolete to the research sociologist. A thesis is that the current expanding discussions of life styles are not necessarily a substitute but a valuable supplement to social stratification theory. Life style research can contribute to the question of the relevance of the class concept. The result of the investigation shows that life style research, when connected to the writings of Thorstein Veblen, Georg Simmel, and Max Weber, can enrich research in the social sciences.
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Fred E. Foldvary American Journal of Economics and Sociology. 2001. Vol. 60. No. 1. P. 403-418.
An alternative to centralized top-down city governance is a multi-level bottom-up structure based on small neighborhood contractual communities. This paper analyzes the voting rules and public finances of decentralized, contractual urban governance and the likely outcome of such a constitutional structure, substantially reduced transfer seeking or rent seeking. Tax and service substitution, with lower-level funding and services substituting for higher-level public finance, is the general process by which the governance would devolve. Land rent is the most feasible source of such decentralized public finance, and local communities could also engage in local currency and credit services. Some empirical examples demonstrate the implementation of some of these governance structures.
The long and bumpy road to glass-steagall reform: A historical and evolutionary analysis of banking legislation [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Jill M. Hendrickson American Journal of Economics and Sociology. 2001. Vol. 60. No. 4. P. 849-879.
This paper focuses on understanding the role of interest groups and markets in influencing regulatory change. To that end, it first identities the interest groups surrounding the creation of legislation that separated commercial and investment banking in the 1930s and then identifies the interest groups involved in the more recent attempts to repeal the separation. Careful attention is also given to developments in the private market that affect the legislative process. This particular case study finds that existing orthodox economic and political science literature gives too much credit to interest groups and not enough credit to private market developments when analyzing policy development and reform.
The structure of sprawl: Identifying and characterizing employment centers in polycentric metropolitan areas [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Nathan B. Anderson, William T. Bogart American Journal of Economics and Sociology. 2001. Vol. 60. No. 1. P. 147-169.
This paper applies a consistent framework to four comparably sized metropolitan areas to identify and characterize their employment centers. Employment centers are identified as places that exceed a threshold employment density and a threshold employment level. They are also characterized as specializing on the basis of location quotient analysis. Clear evidence was found of specialization in every employment center in the four metropolitan areas studied. The interpretation is that what is observed is a systematic change in metropolitan structure rather than a random sprawling of firms. Evidence was also found that the size distribution of employment centers follows the rank-size rule. This suggests that there is structure not only in the distribution of economic activity among the employment centers but also in their size distribution.