American Journal of Economics and Sociology
Выпуск N2 за 2001 год
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Nicole Woolsey Biggart, Richard P. Castanias American Journal of Economics and Sociology. 2001. Vol. 60. No. 2. P. 471-500.
Traditionally, economists have viewed social relations as friction or impediments to exchange and have excluded social relations from their analyses by assuming autonomous actors. Recently, however, a number of scholars - economists, sociologists, anthropologists, and other social scientists - have begun to discuss the numerous ways in which social arrangements both prompt and channel economic activity. Rational choice theory, social capital and network analysis, and agency and game theory, are among those approaches that consider the effects of social relations on economic action. In this paper, that discussion is extended by arguing that social relations can function as collateral or assurance that an economic transaction will proceed as agreed by the parties involved. Recent microeconomic theories are reviewed and how They might be developed following this observation, which is derived from sociological and anthropological studies of economic action and organizations.
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Patrik Aspers American Journal of Economics and Sociology. 2001. Vol. 60. No. 2. P. 519-545.
The aim of this paper is to present the economic sociology of Vilfredo Pareto. It is argued that Pareto represents a mode of thinking that has not been used in economic sociology and barely considered in the other branches of sociology. The habitual bifurcation of Pareto into the economist and the sociologist is rejected. Pareto stresses the non-logical parts of human life, and he provides empirical examples of this in his writing. He was occupied with the dynamics in society as a result mainly of non-logical actions. It is shown how one may speak of a distinctly Paretian economic sociology, which primarily has its origin in his theoretical discussions. It is also shown that Pareto conducted empirical studies drawing from his version of economic sociology. Included is a presentation, as well as a discussion of Pareto's idea of rentiers and speculators, which is followed up by a more general discussion of economic types in the market.
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Jorge Martinez-Vazquez, Felix Rioja, Samuel Skogstad American Journal of Economics and Sociology. 2001. Vol. 60. No. 2. P. 501-517.
Emerging economies in crisis typically request assistance from the International Monetary Fund (IMF). After evaluating the situation, the IMF makes a loan available to the country, conditional on certain policy reforms. Governments usually resist many of these measures and negotiation ensues. This paper analyzes the most contentious measures of IMF conditionally in the context of Russia after the August 1998 crisis. The most discussed measures include the budget deficit structural reforms, and exchange rate policy. The analysis suggests that to some extent the disagreement arose because the IMF is focused on changing steady states somewhat ignoring the transition path, while the Russian government is preoccupied with transitional dynamics without a clearly defined steady state concept.