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American Journal of Economics and Sociology

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Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002
Richard J. Cebula, Chris Paul American Journal of Economics and Sociology. 2002.  Vol. 61. No. 2. P. 495-501. 
This study empirically identifies both the economic and political determinants of the public's dissatisfaction with government in the US. Using annual survey data on the public's dissatisfaction with government obtained for the years 1965-1996, it is found that the Vietnam War, Watergate, oil price shocks and higher federal marginal income tax rates resulted in elevated levels of the public's dissatisfaction with government, whereas increases in housing prices and a rising Dow Jones industrial average reduced the public's dissatisfaction with the government.
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002
John Marangos American Journal of Economics and Sociology. 2002.  Vol. 61. No. 1. P. 259-276. 
The neoclassical model of transition from a centrally-administered socialist economic system to a market-based economic system was implemented in Russia and Eastern Europe. The neoclassical process took the form of either shock therapy or gradualism. However, each approach actually involved a combination of shock therapy and gradualist policies, making the distinction between the two approaches unfounded. In addition, both approaches suffered by the innate inadequacies of neoclassical economic analysis as being politically/institutionally naked. Both shock therapy supporters and gradualist neoclassical economists did not provide a specific process of institutional development, favoring a gradual market-driven institutional outcome. With regard to the political structure, democracy was inconsistent with shock therapy, while active state intervention during transition was inconsistent with the ultimate goal of the gradualist neoclassical economists of competitive capitalism.
Опубликовано на портале: 30-08-2005
Jürgen G. Backhaus American Journal of Economics and Sociology. 2002.  Vol. 61. No. 1. P. 55-77. 
A short sketch of the history of thought of fiscal sociology is given. Main issues are identified. In discussing the concept of the tax state, issues in constitutional public finance are emphasized. One of the fields in which fiscal sociology has been most important is taxation, and notably income taxation. In citing applications and issues, an entire alphabet of fiscal sociological issues is identified. The future of the field in both instruction and research is also discussed.
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Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002
Agnes Festre American Journal of Economics and Sociology. 2002.  Vol. 61. No. 2. P. 439-480. 
This paper examines and compares, in both historical and theoretical perspectives, Hayek's and Schumpeter's accounts of the role played by banks and credit in their respective explanations of business cycles. The first section is focused on the common inheritance of these two authors, which can be traced back to Wicksell, going from Mises whose Theory of Money and Credit provides a crucial link in this perspective. The following two sections deal with Hayek's and Schumpeter's respective accounts as well as critical reconstruction of this tradition. The last section is dedicated to a comparison between Hayek's and Schumpeter's views of the dynamics of monetary economies and their corresponding policy issues.
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002
Jan Schnellenbach American Journal of Economics and Sociology. 2002.  Vol. 61. No. 1. P. 193-214. 
New political economy has something very important in common with welfare economics: its focus on static, technical efficiency criteria to judge the rationality of a social, political or economic order. This often leads theorists to perceive their objects of research as well-defined problems to which clear-cut solutions can be found and prescribed as policy proposals, addressed at the policymaker or the democratic sovereign. This perspective frequently excludes important empirical phenomena from the research agenda. Although, for example, certain well-defined informational asymmetries are frequently modeled, fundamental knowledge problems such as ignorance of the true model of the economy are usually ignored. In the present paper, this approach is criticized from a Hayekian point of view, with an emphasis on the problems of scientism (i.e., the inappropriate transfer of methods from the natural to the social sciences) and irremediably imperfect knowledge, troubling both the agents in the theoretical model and the theorist.
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002
Warren Young, Joris Meijaard American Journal of Economics and Sociology. 2002.  Vol. 61. No. 1. P. 301-326. 
This paper deals with two issues. By linking culture and political systems, alternatives to the Developmental State approach are developed and the Bureaucratic State, among other types, is proposed for explaining the case of Japan. The Laffont-Tirole (L-T) model of regulatory capture is extended and a bureaucratic capture model is proposed. Variations of capture are shown to apply, given particular cultural predispositions. The case of atomic energy in Japan and the United States is then studied to assess the predictive efficacy of the extended L-T model. The paper concludes that cultural predispositions and the corresponding state types affect the degree to which capture takes place.
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002
Peter J. Boettke, Virgil Henry Storr American Journal of Economics and Sociology. 2002.  Vol. 61. No. 1. P. 161-191. 
This paper explores the relationship of Max Weber's social economics to the work of the Austrian School of Economics, and in particular the writings of Ludwig von Mises and F. A. Hayek. It argues that the Austrian school scholars complement and extend the work of Weber. The sophisticated form of methodological individualism found in Weber, Mises and Hayek overcomes the shortcomings of traditional economic and sociological analysis and could provide the analytical structure for a post-classical political economy.
Опубликовано на портале: 29-05-2004
Peter J. Boettke, Virgil Henry Storr American Journal of Economics and Sociology. 2002.  Vol. 61. No. 1. P. 161-191. 
This paper explores the relationship of Max Weber's social economics to the work of the Austrian School of Economics, and in particular the writings of Ludwig von Mises and F. A. Hayek. It argues that the Austrian school scholars complement and extend the work of Weber. The sophisticated form of methodological individualism found in Weber, Mises and Hayek overcomes the shortcomings of traditional economic and sociological analysis and could provide the analytical structure for a post-classical political economy.
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002
Shuntian Yao American Journal of Economics and Sociology. 2002.  Vol. 61. No. 1. P. 279-299. 
This paper examines China's corruption problem with the help of several simple economic models. The concepts of implicit corruption and explicit corruption are proposed. The granting of privileges has directly created implicit corruption in China's socialist market economy. The long-term existence of the same privileged group in Chinese society has led to widespread collusion among its members, and as a result, these privileged group members, by utilizing their monopoly power, are able to seize almost all the wealth created by the ordinary Chinese people. This seizure is accomplished by means of a two-part tariff in pricing their administrative service, which is the essence of the explicit corruption. Because both implicit corruption and explicit corruption are generated by China's political system, which grants and protects privileges, unless a political reform is initiated and privileges are eliminated, China's problem of corruption will never be solved.
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002
A.M.C. Waterman American Journal of Economics and Sociology. 2002.  Vol. 61. No. 1. P. 13-51. 
This article is concerned with the positive sense of political economy: that is, as a body of theory that purports to explain economic phenomena. It proposes a following strong thesis for debate: The new political economies of the present day differ sharply in their ideological implications from those of 50 years ago. Neoclassical orthodoxy provided the intellectual foundations of a collectivist political consensus. But the new political economies have destroyed those foundations, and have replaced them with economic theories far more congenial to an earlier, laissez-faire consensus born in the European Enlightenment.
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002
Markus C. Becker, Thorbjorn Knudsen American Journal of Economics and Sociology. 2002.  Vol. 61. No. 2. P. 387-403. 
This paper presents to the English-speaking reader a sample of material contained only in Schumpeter’s first German edition (1911) of Theorie der wirtschaftlichen Entwicklung, material subsequently omitted from later German editions and from the English translation. The newly-translated material, comprises a substantial part of the second chapter, only available in a completely rewritten version, and fully half of the famous seventh chapter, which has not been previously available at all in English. This material merits attention today because it contains remarkable and farsighted visions on economic theory that may inspire current efforts to devise models of economic and social evolution.
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002
Vladimir Kollontai American Journal of Economics and Sociology. 2002.  Vol. 61. No. 1. P. 217-232. 
This paper analyzes some of the problems created by a rapidly changing interaction between the political and the economic spheres in society. In periods of condensed social change this interaction is profoundly different from customary evolutionary developments. In Russia, various political economic concepts during the last century have led to profound shifts in economic mechanisms and structures (first toward a planned economy, later toward a market one). A knowledge of this experience (and the new problems that surface) might be useful if globalization, environmental issues and the transition to a post-industrial society should lead to periods of condensed socioeconomic change in the West.
Опубликовано на портале: 29-05-2004
Vladimir Kollontai American Journal of Economics and Sociology. 2002.  Vol. 61. No. 1. P. 217-232. 
This paper analyzes some of the problems created by a rapidly changing interaction between the political and the economic spheres in society. In periods of condensed social change this interaction is profoundly different from customary evolutionary developments. In Russia, various political economic concepts during the last century have led to profound shifts in economic mechanisms and structures (first toward a planned economy, later toward a market one). A knowledge of this experience (and the new problems that surface) might be useful if globalization, environmental issues and the transition to a post-industrial society should lead to periods of condensed socioeconomic change in the West.
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002
Andrew Savchenko American Journal of Economics and Sociology. 2002.  Vol. 61. No. 1. P. 233-257. 
While at the start of systemic economic transformations in Eastern Europe, both indigenous reformers and Western observers tended to interpret the events as a rationally conceived and executed replacement of an economic system of inferior performance by another one whose superiority was proven, the developments that followed the disintegration of the Soviet polity did not support this view. Shortly after the former Soviet republics gained independence, they exhibited marked variations in speed and sometimes direction of market transformation that could not be satisfactorily explained within the framework of economic theories used by promoters of reforms. This paper compares the early stages of economic transformation in Belarus, where reforms were eventually abandoned, with the three Baltic states (Latvia, Lithuania, Estonia), which are the most successful emerging market economies among the former Soviet republics. Non-economic factors that might have contributed to this difference are highlighted.
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002
Jan-Peter Olters American Journal of Economics and Sociology. 2002.  Vol. 61. No. 1. P. 79-102. 
Elections, often to a considerable degree, influence the fiscal policies of governments installed on the basis of their results. Yet, economists have tended to view politicians' behavior either as being determined exogenously or as the result of a social planner's maximization of a well-defined social-welfare function (subject to some appropriate technology and resource constraints). On the basis of explicit microeconomic foundations and a democratically coordinated decision-making mechanism over the optimal provision of public goods and the corresponding taxes required to finance them, this paper will introduce a simple economic model of politics that subjects individuals to a two-tiered political decision-making process over party membership and electoral participation, thereby endogenizing the evolution of the competing parties' ideologies, households' electoral behavior, and the key factors explaining the design of fiscal policies. Having the majority party's median delegate determine on the optimal degree of income redistribution suggests that a country's wealth distribution is a crucial explanatory variable explaining its politico-economic development path.