American Journal of Sociology
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Опубликовано на портале: 23-12-2002Arthur L. Stinchcombe American Journal of Sociology. 1961. Vol. 67. No. 2. P. 165-176.
Property is far more important in rural stratification than in urban stratification, where occupational position predominates. There is less similarity of the property systems in commercialized agriculture than there is in urban occupational structure. In agricultural production for markets, the main types of property systems are commercialized manorial systems, plantation systems, and ranching systems. Each of these produces a distinctive pattern of class relations, determining the sharpness of differences of legal privileges and style of life, and shaping the distribution of technical culture and political activity.
Опубликовано на портале: 22-11-2005Talcott Parsons American Journal of Sociology. 1950. Vol. 45. No. 5. P. 841-862.
The present paper is an attempt to formulate and illustrate a generalized approach to the theory of social stratification. This field has, in spite of its central importance, been in a notably undeveloped stae. The emergence of a highly generalized conceptual scheme in social theory which has elsewhere been traced by the author suggests the possibility of a more thorough theoretical approach than has hitherto been possible. Social stratification, here regarded as the differential ranking of the human individuals who compose a given social system and their treatment as relatively superior or inferior, may be analyzed in terms of the following classification scheme: (I) membership in a kinship unit, (2) personal qualities, (3) achievements, (4) possessions, (5) authority, and (6) power.
Опубликовано на портале: 23-12-2002Joel I. Nelson American Journal of Sociology. 1968. Vol. 74. No. 2. P. 184-192.
Research is reported on the relation between anomie and membership in the old and the new middle class. The old and the new middle class are defined in terms of two dimensions: (1) access to large-scale industrial bureaucracies-a factor relevant to mass-society theory-and (2) ownership as opposed to management of capital-a factor relevant to a more traditional class-oriented, economic theory. The data are generally more consistent with an economic viewpoint than a mass-society viewpoint: at low and moderate income levels owners tend to be more anomic than managers; bureaucratic affiliations are not, however, related to anomie. An attempt is made to trace the differences in anomie between owners and managers to varying mobility commitments. Owners tend to be less mobility oriented than managers. When commitments to mobility are controlled, the differences on anomie between the two groups attenuate to a point where they are no longer statistically significant. This result is discussed within a more general theoretical perspective.
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Vivek Chibber American Journal of Sociology. 2002. Vol. 107. No. 4. P. 951-989.
There has been a resuscitation of the view that the state can play an important role in the industrialization process. But, for states to be successful in fostering development, they need a considerable degree of internal cohesiveness, which is generally supplied by the presence of a robust, Weberian bureaucratic corps. This article argues that, while internal cohesiveness is indeed critical, bureaucratic rule following can produce results in the opposite direction, depending on the interagency relations that obtain within the state. The effect of interagency relations is demonstrated through an examination of India and Korea. Both have worked to foster industrialization, and both are endowed with relatively healthy bureaucracies. However, the Indian state was paralyzed and fragmented, while its Korean counterpart did secure the requisite internal coherence. Not only did the culture of rule following fail to generate a cohesive state in India, but it, in fact, worked against such an outcome.
Business Citizenship at Work: Cultural Transposition and Class Formation in Cincinnati, 1870 - 1910 [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Jeffrey Haydu American Journal of Sociology. 2002. Vol. 107. No. 6. P. 1424-1467.
This article links class analysis and institutionalism through a case study of late-19th-century employers. Class analysis extends institutionalism by highlighting an additional source of cultural transposition a generalized identity summarized here as "business citizenship." Institutionalism, in turn, shows how civic associations worked to unify employers and foster an overarching class consciousness. The case study provides an overview of class formation among Cincinnati employers and illustrates how business citizenship carried over from the realms of political reform and high culture to personnel management and industrial training. Some comparative observations suggest this pattern of class formation and cultural transposition was typical.
Опубликовано на портале: 23-12-2002Gerhard E. Lenski, John C. Leggett American Journal of Sociology. 1960. Vol. 65. No. 5. P. 463-467.
To test the influence of the defence norm on low-status respondent when questioned by middleclass interviewers, a cross-section of Detroiters were asked their views concerning two mutually contradictory propositions used at widely separated points in the interview. As predicted, the norm led in nearly 8 per cent to agree with both statements despite their highly contradictory character. This raises serious questions concerning the validity of the A-scale and concerning the interpretation of the F-scale. This study serves as yet another reminder that the research interview invariably creates a social relationship with consequences of importance forthe interpretation of data.
Опубликовано на портале: 22-05-2004Erik Olin Wright American Journal of Sociology. 2000. Vol. 105. No. 6. P. 1559-1571.
In commenting on Aage Sorensen's "Toward a Sounder Basis for Class Analysis," Wright argues against the ideas that exploitation can be fruitfully defined in terms of rent-generating processes or that a class analysis built on such foundations will be satisfactory.
Опубликовано на портале: 23-12-2002Robert W. Hodge, Donald J. Treiman American Journal of Sociology. 1968. Vol. 73. No. 5. P. 535-547.
Data derived from a national sample survey reveal that education, main earner's occupation, and family income have independent effects upon class identification. Multiple regresion analyses reveal that ownership of stocks and bonds in private companies, savings bonds, and rental property makes no significant contribution to the explanation of class identification once education, occupation, and income have been controlled. These same socioeconomic variables also account for the zero-order associations of race and union membership with class identification. However, indexes based upon the occupational levels of one's friends, neighbors, and relatives make independent contributions to one's class identification which are no less important than those made by education, occupation, and income. Thus, class identification rests not only upon one's own location in the status structure but upon the socioeconomic level of one's acquaintances.
Опубликовано на портале: 12-12-2002Nan Dirk De Graaf, Paul Nieuwbeerta, Anthony F. Heath American Journal of Sociology. 1994. Vol. 100. No. 4. P. 997-1027.
The authors test several hypotheses about the impact of intergerational class mobility on political party preferences. Test using cross-national data sets representing Britain, the Netherlands, Germany, and the United States over the period 1964-90 suggest a process of acculturation to the class of destination. The authors hypothesized that a class with a high degree of demographic identity influences newcomers more than a class with low demographic identity does and that, the more left-wing inflow there is into a class, the more likely the immobile members are to have left-wing political preferences. The data did not confirm these hypotheses. A macro analysis does, however, show that the level of class voting is weakened by a compositional mobility effect.
Class Origin, Class Destination, and Education: A Cross-National Study of Ten Industrial Nations [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 23-12-2002Hiroshi Ishida, Walter Muller, John M. Ridge American Journal of Sociology. 1995. Vol. 101. No. 1. P. 145-193.
This article examines three themes about the relationships among class origin, education, and class destination in 10 industrial nations: (1) differential access to education for different class origins, (2) the allocation of class positions by education, and (3) the role of education in class reproduction and mobility. The patterns of association between class origin and education and between education and class destination are similar across the 10 nations. However, the strength of these associations shows cross-national variations. Class reproduction and mobility involve different social processes, which are differentially affected by education. However, a cross-national similarity emerges again in the way education mediates the association between class origin and destination. The conclusion presents some implications of this analysis for the study of comparative macrosociology.
Опубликовано на портале: 22-05-2004Neil Fligstein, Alec S. Sweet American Journal of Sociology. 2002. Vol. 107. No. 5. P. 1206-1243.
As institutions and governance structures develop in modern markets, they tend to "feed back" onto economic activity. Through such feedback loops, market and political arenas can develop symbiotically into relatively coherent "fields" that gradually embed actors' orientations and activities. Using these insights, this article develops and tests a theory of European integration focusing on the case of the European Community, the first pillar of the European Union. Traders, organized interests, courts, and the EC's policy-making organs, over time, have produced a self-sustaining causal system that has driven the construction of the European market and polity. The generality of this explanation to a sociology of markets and polity-building projects is discussed in the conclusion.
Culture, Class, and Connections [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 23-12-2002Bonnie H. Erickson American Journal of Sociology. 1996. Vol. 102. No. 1. P. 217-251.
Bourdieu's analysis of class and culture errs in neglecting two important aspects of social structure: social networks and class relations at work. He expects high-status culture to be useful in class because it is correlated with class, but culture used at work includes both genres related to class (used in domination) and genres unrelated to class (used in coordination). High-status culture is correlated with class but excluded, not used, in the competitive private sector. The most widely useful cultural resource is cultural variety, and social network variety is a better source of cultural variety than is class itself.
Опубликовано на портале: 29-05-2004Xueguang Zhou American Journal of Sociology. 2000. Vol. 105. No. 4. P. 1135-1174.
Using panel data of 4,730 urban residents drawn from 20 cities in China, this article examines changes in income determinants between the prereform and reform eras. To guide this empirical study, a conceptual model is developed that emphasizes the coevolution of politics and markets to synthesize theoretical ideas in the recent debate on the transformation of state socialist societies. The findings show significant changes in returns to education and in the rise of private/hybrid firms in the reform era. There is also strong evidence of institutional persistence in returns to positional power and in the organizational hierarchy. These findings reveal multifaceted processes of transformation that call for more sophisticated theoretical models and in-depth institutional analyses.
Опубликовано на портале: 23-12-2002Theodore P. Gerber, Michael Hout American Journal of Sociology. 1995. Vol. 101. No. 3. P. 611-660.
A national survey of educational stratification in Russia reveals substantial inequality of educational attainments throughout the Soviet period. Parents' education, main earner's occupation, and geographical origin contributed to these inequalities. Gender preferences for men were removed, and for some transitions reversed. Although secondary education grew rapidly, higher education failed to keep pace. This disparity led to a university-level enrollment squeeze, and the resulting bottleneck hurt disadvantaged classes more than advantaged ones. In turn the effect of social origins on entering university increased after 1965. The upshot was no net change in the origin-based differences in likelihood of attaining a VUZ degree across three postwar cohorts.
Опубликовано на портале: 29-05-2004Paul Ingram, Peter W. Roberts American Journal of Sociology. 2000. Vol. 106. No. 2. P. 387-421.
Friendships with competitors can improve the performance of organizations through the mechanisms of enhanced collaboration, mitigated competition, and better information exchange. Moreover, these benefits are best achieved when competing managers are embedded in a cohesive network of friendships (i.e., one with many friendships among competitors), since cohesion facilitates the verification of information culled from the network, eliminates the structural holes faced by customers, and facilitates the normative control of competitors. The first part of this analysis examines the performance implications of the friendship-network structure within the Sydney hotel industry, with performance being the yield (i.e., revenue per available room) of a given hotel. This shows that friendships with competitors lead to dramatic improvements in hotel yields. Performance is further improved if a manager's competitors are themselves friends, evidencing the benefit of cohesive friendship networks. The second part of the analysis examines the structure of friendship ties among hotel managers and shows that friendships are more likely between managers who are competitors.