American Journal of Sociology
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Опубликовано на портале: 23-12-2002Mark Abrahamson American Journal of Sociology. 1973. Vol. 78. No. 5. P. 1236-1246.
This paper presents an analysis of the assumptions that are necessary to test empirically hypotheses from functional theories and from the functional theory of stratification in particular. The study focuses upon Stinchcombe's hypothesis that the income of military-related positions will rise relative to the income of comparable nonmilitary-related positions during times of war. Problems in operationalizing occupational comparability, relative income gains, and wartimes are discussed, and solutions are presented. Data comparing matched occupations between 1939 and 1967 are shown to provide support for Stinchcombe's proposition, and the paper concludes with a discussion of the generalizability of the findings.
Опубликовано на портале: 18-10-2004Urs Bruegger, Karin Knorr Cetina American Journal of Sociology. 2002. Vol. 107. No. 4. P. 905-950.
Using participant-observation data, interviews, and trading transcripts drawn from interbank currency trading in global investment banks, this article examines regular patterns of integration that characterize the global social system embedded in economic transactions. To interpret these patterns, which are global in scope but microsocial in character, this article uses the term "global microstructures". Features of the interaction order, loosely defined, have become constitutive of and implanted in processes that have global breadth. This study draws on Schutz in the development of the concept of temporal coordination as the basis for the level of intersubjectivity discerned in global markets. This article contributes to economic sociology through the analysis of cambist (i.e., trading) markets, which are distinguished from producer markets, and by positing a form of market coordination that supplements relational or network forms of coordination.
Labor Pains: Change in Organizational Models and Employee Turnover in Young, High-Tech Firms [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 29-05-2004James N. Baron, Michael T. Hannan, Diane Burton American Journal of Sociology. 2001. Vol. 106. No. 4. P. 960-1012.
Organizational theories, especially ecological perspectives, emphasize the disruptive effects of change. However, the mechanisms producing these effects are seldom examined explicitly. This article examines one such mechanism employee turnover. Analyzing a sample of high-technology start-ups, we show that changes in the employment models or blueprints embraced by organizational leaders increase turnover, which in turn adversely affects subsequent organizational performance. Turnover associated with organizational change appears to be concentrated among the most senior employees, suggesting "old guard disenchantment" as the primary cause. The results are consistent with the claim of neoinstitutionalist scholars that founders impose cultural blueprints on nascent organizations and with the claim of organizational ecologists that altering such blueprints is disruptive and destabilizing.
Marx's Use of "Class" [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 23-12-2002Bertell Ollman American Journal of Sociology. 2002. Vol. 73. No. 5. P. 573-580.
We attempt to derive Marx's theory of class through the way he uses the terms, rather than through an interpretation of his most general statements on the subject, which is how class has usually been approached. "Class" is seen to refer to social and economic groupings based on a wide variety of standards whose interrelations are those Marx finds in the real society under examination. By conceptualizing a unity of apparently distinct social relations, "class" in Marxism is inextricably bound up with the truth of Marx's own analysis. Its utility is a function of the adequacy of this analysis.
Опубликовано на портале: 29-05-2004Trond Petersen, Ishak Saporta, Marc-David L. Seidel American Journal of Sociology. 2000. Vol. 106. No. 3. P. 763-816.
This study focuses on the impact of sex, race, and social networks, to analyze the hiring process in a midsized high-technology organization, using information on all 35,229 applicants in a 10-year period (1985 94). For gender, the process is entirely meritocratic: age and education account for all sex differences. But even without taking into account the two meritocratic variables, there are small if no differences between men and women at all stages in the hiring process. For ethnic minorities, the process is partly meritocratic but partly reliant upon social networks. Once referral method is taken into account, all race effects disappear. In hiring, ethnic minorities are thus disadvantaged in the processes that take place before the organization is contacted. They lack access to or utilize less well the social networks that lead to high success in getting hired.
Опубликовано на портале: 07-10-2004Alejandro Portes American Journal of Sociology. 1971. Vol. 77. No. 2. P. 228-244.
Marx's concept of class consciousness has frequently been employed in political sociology to state that the emergence of leftist radicalism in the lower classes is affected not only by feelings of frustration but also by whether individuals blame their condition on the social structure rather than themselves. Most contemporary formulations, however, fail to specify whether the hypothesis predicts purely corrrelational or interactive relationships between frustration, structural blame, and leftist radicalism. Data from two lower-class samples drawn at different times in Santiago, Chile, are used here to test the two versions. Results support the correlational, but not the interactive, interpretation. Implications and limitations of this finding are discussed.
Опубликовано на портале: 23-12-2002Maurice Zeitlin American Journal of Sociology. 1966. Vol. 71. No. 5. P. 493-508.
Cuba has been characterized by abrupt political and social transitions, and Cubans have interpreted their history to a significant extent in generational terms. This study is based on interviews with 202 Cuban industrial workers. Hypotheses were formulated in accordance with the concept of political generation. Each political generation, both in the aggregate and in structural (employment-status) subgroups, had prerevolutionary attitudes toward the Communists and has responded to the Castro revolution as predicted from knowledge of the historical experiences hypothesized to have been of decisive political relevance in the formation of that generation.
Power and Privilege in the Large Corporation: Corporate Control and Managerial Compensation [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 23-12-2002Michael Patrick Allen American Journal of Sociology. 1981. Vol. 86. No. 5. P. 1112-1123.
The research presented here investigates the relative utility of a power theory versus a functional theory of organizational stratification as they pertain to managerial compensation in the large corporation. Concretely, it examines the effects of different types and levels of corporate control, adjusted for the effects of corporate size and performance, on three dimensions of compensation among 218 industrial corporations during 1975 and 1976. In order to assess the power of the chief executive officer in relation to other directors, the analysis employs a hierarchy of control configurations based on the distribution of stock ownerwhip among the members of the board of directors. In general, the results confirm the hypothesis that the remuneration received by a chief executive officer is directly related to his power within the corporation. A major exception to this pattern involves chief executive officers who are also principal stockholders in their corporations and receive dividend income from their stock.
Promotion Paradox: Organizational Mortality and Employee Promotion Chances in Silicon Valley Firms, 1946-1996 [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 29-05-2004Damon J. Phillips American Journal of Sociology. 2001. Vol. 106. No. 4. P. 1058-1098.
This article argues that there is a promotion paradox a negative relation between firm life chances and employee promotion chances. Author argues that this is due to a firms bargaining power, which increases with firms competitive strength. Author finds strong support using data on 50 years of Silicon Valley law firms and attorneys. Young, small, specialist, and low-status firms are more likely to fail but are also contexts with the highest promotion likelihood. Moreover, except for those firms that are "near death," an associate's promotion likelihood increases with the law firm's probability of failure.
Public Opinion and Social Class [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 23-12-2002Arthur Kornhauser American Journal of Sociology. 1950. Vol. 55. No. 4. P. 333-345.
Grave difficulties are encountered in efforts to demonstrate that social class accounts for differences in opinions on economic and political questions and that particular class factors are especially decisive. A consideration of limitations and sources of error in research on the problem leads to proposals concerning more adequate study of opinions, clearer analysis of class attributes and their interrelations, more critical procedures in interpreting variables as determinants, and, above all, the use of coherent theory dealing with the processes by which class influences produce given effects.
Опубликовано на портале: 23-12-2002Otis Dudley Duncan, Beverly Duncan American Journal of Sociology. 1955. Vol. 60. No. 5. P. 493-503.
Ecological analysis is a promising approach to the study of urban social stratification, for differences in the residential distributions of occupations groups are found to parallel the differences among them in socio-economic status and recruitment. The occupation groups at the extremes of the socioeconomic scale are the most segregated. Residential concentration in low-rent areas and residential centralization are inversely related to socioeconomic status. Inconsistencies in the ranking of occupation groups according to residential patterns occur at points where there is evidence of status disequilibrium.
Опубликовано на портале: 29-05-2004Linda D. Molim, Nobuyuki Takahashi, Gretchen Peterson American Journal of Sociology. 2000. Vol. 105. No. 5. P. 1396-1427.
The classical exchange theorists proposed that trust is more likely to develop between partners when exchange occurs without explicit negotiations or bringing agreements. Under these conditions, the risk and uncertainty of exchange provide the opportunity for partners to demonstrate their trustworthiness. This study develops the theoretical implications of this proposition and conducts an experimental test that compares levels of both trust and commitment in two forms or direct exchange, negotiated and reciprocal. The results support the classical proposition, showing that reciprocal exchange produces stronger trust and affective commitment that negotiated exchange, and that behaviors signaling the partners trustworthiness have greater impact on trust in reciprocal exchange.
Опубликовано на портале: 22-05-2004Alberto Palloni, Douglas S. Massey, Miguel Ceballos American Journal of Sociology. 2001. Vol. 106. No. 5. P. 1262-1298.
This article uses a multistate hazard model to test the network hypothesis of social capital theory. The effects of family network ties on individual migration are estimated while controlling for measured and unmeasured conditions that influence migration risks for all family members. Results suggest that social network effects are robust to the introduction of controls for human capital, common household characteristics, and unobserved conditions. Estimates also confirm the ancillary hypothesis, which states that diffuse social capital distributed among community and household members strongly influences the likelihood of out-migration, thus validating social capital theory in general and the network hypothesis in particular.
Опубликовано на портале: 22-05-2004Roberto M. Fernandez, Emilio J. Castilla, Paul Moore American Journal of Sociology. 2000. Vol. 105. No. 5. P. 1288-1356.
This article argues that a common organizational practice the hiring of new workers via employee referrals provides key insights into the notion of social capital. Employers who use such hiring methods are quintessential social capitalists, viewing workers social connections as resources in which they can invest in order to gain economic returns in the form of better hiring outcomes. Using unique data on the dollar costs of screening, hiring, and training, this article finds that the firm s investment in the social capital of its employees yields significant economic returns.
Social Class and Parental Values [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 23-12-2002Melvin L. Kohn American Journal of Sociology. 1959. Vol. 64. No. 4. P. 337-351.
Middle-and working-class parents share a broadly common se of values-but not an identical set by any means. There appears to be a close fit between the actual workings-class situation and the values of working-class parents; between the actual middle-class situation and the values of middle-class parents. In either situation the values that seem important but problematic are the ones most likely to be accorded high priority. For the working class the "important but problematic" centers around qualities that assure respectability; for the middle class it centers around internalized standards of conduct.