American Journal of Sociology
1950 1951 1953 1955 1958 1959 1960 1961 1963 1966 1968 1969 1970 1971 1973 1976 1981 1991 1994 1995 1996 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002
Опубликовано на портале: 23-12-2002Melvin L. Kohn American Journal of Sociology. 1963. Vol. 68. No. 4. P. 471-480.
The argument of this analysis is that class differences in parent-child relationships are a product of differences in parental values (with middle-class parents' values centering on self-direction and working-class parents' values on conformity to external proscriptions); these differences in values, in turn, stem from differences in the conditions of life of the various social classes (particularly occupational conditions-middle-class occupations requiring a greater degree of self-direction, working-class occupations, in larger measure, requiring that one follow explicit rules set down by someone in authority). Values, thus, form a bridge between social structure and behavior.
Social Class and Size of Community [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 23-12-2002Thomas Ely Lasswell American Journal of Sociology. 1959. Vol. 64. No. 5. P. 505-508.
Descriptions of the patterns of social stratification of the home towns of 151 subjects were sorted according to the local populations of 1950. The subjects' conceptions of social classes were shown to vary with the size of the communities; certain marked distinctions in the number of classes were believed to exist in the communities, and, even though the same values seemed to be involved, their relative importance, as indicated by frequency in being mentioned, varied significatly among the categories of communities.
Social Class in American Sociology [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 23-12-2002Milton M. Gordon American Journal of Sociology. 1951. Vol. 55. No. 3. P. 262-268.
Despite the rapid development of social-class analysis within the last twenty-five years in American sociology, there is no agreement on the meaning of the term as a research tool. A series of analytical questions to be used in a survey of recent class materials is proposed to aid in the discovering of common ground. These questions revolve around definition, which may be in terms of economic power, status ascription, group life, cultural attributes, political power, or their combination; ascertainment, or class placement; defferences; social mobility; and the relationship of class to ethnic stratification.
Опубликовано на портале: 23-12-2002Richard Centers American Journal of Sociology. 1953. Vol. 58. No. 6. P. 543-555.
Utilizing survey research methods, an investigation was carried out to clarify the public's conceptions of occupation and belief as criteria of the several social classes. The data were analyzed with a view to determining the constancies and discrepancies in conception between the various classes and the extent to which the individual's own subjective affiliation influences his ideas. The study confirms the importance of belief as a criterion of class ascription.
Опубликовано на портале: 23-12-2002Morris Janowitz American Journal of Sociology. 1958. Vol. 64. No. 1. P. 6-24.
By means of a nation-wide sample survey, the social stratification and patterns of social mobility of West Germany were investigated as well as the consequense of social mobility on selected aspects of social and political behavior. These data underline the continuity of the present social structure with that of the prewar period but also record the extensive upward and downward personal social mobility of individual Germans. West Germany has a social structure similar to that of other Western industrialized countries, but, as compared with the United States, its unique circumstances has produced distinctive features. The consequences of social mobility in West Germany seem to be at least temporarily contributing to greater social consensus.
Subjective Social Distance, Occupational Stratification, and Forms of Status and Class Consciousness: A Cross-national Replication and Extension [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 23-12-2002Edward O. Laumann, Richard Senter American Journal of Sociology. 1976. Vol. 81. No. 6. P. 1304-1338.
After briefly reviewing some general theoretical issues in analyzing systems of social inequality and stratification, we propose a typology of forms of class and status consciousness. A specific procedure employing subjective social distance scales is proposed as an empirical strategy for assessing different forms of status consciousness and exploring their implications for class consciousness and other political and social attitudes. To evaluate the empirical and theoretical utility of this strategy, we report a West German replication of an American study in which substantial evidence is found for a remarkable degree of cross-national similarity in the subjective social distance responses accorded occupations varying in prestige and socioeconomic status, regardless of the class position of the respondent. Some working- and middle-class persons did, indeed, prefer to interact with members of their own class rather than with persons in higher- (or lower-) status occupations; and this manifestation of corporate status consciousness appeared to be specifically linked to other political and social views consonant with such consciousness. But these were relatively minor, albeit systematic, departures from the general picture of prestige-or upward-oriented preferences for intimate interaction at all class levels-what we have called a competitive status consciousness that appeared to be pervasive among lower-status persons in both the American and the German communities studied. While the results can hardly be regarded as definitive, they help to clarify a number of issues in studying subjective consciousness of the class and status order and suggest the promise of further work employing the approach.
Опубликовано на портале: 29-05-2004Olav Sorenson, Stuart E. Toby American Journal of Sociology. 1970. Vol. 106. No. 6. P. 1546-1588.
Sociological investigations of economic exchange reveal how institutions and social structures shape transaction patterns among economic actors. This article explores how interfirm networks in the U.S. venture capital (VC) market affect spatial patterns of exchange. Evidence suggests that information about potential investment opportunities generally circulates within geographic and industry spaces. In turn, the circumscribed flow of information within these spaces contributes to the geographic- and industry-localization of VC investments. Empirical analyses demonstrate that the social networks in the VC community built up through the industry's extensive use of syndicated investing diffuse information across boundaries and therefore expand the spatial radius of exchange. Venture capitalists that build axial positions in the industry's coinvestment network invest more frequently in spatially distant companies. Thus, variation in actors' positioning within the structure of the market appears to differentiate market participants' ability to overcome boundaries that otherwise would curtail exchange.
Опубликовано на портале: 29-05-2004Nobuyuki Takahashi American Journal of Sociology. 2000. Vol. 105. No. 4. P. 1105-1134.
The existence of generalized exchange characterized by unilateral resource giving has been a puzzle when we assume rational actors, because free riding can occur. This article first identifies pure-generalized exchange in which each actor gives resources to the recipient(s) of his choice. Then, it proposes the fairness-based selective-giving strategy. An actor adopting this strategy selects a recipient whose behaviors satisfy her criterion of fairness, provided perfect information is given. The results of evolutionary simulation show that pure-generalized exchange can emerge among egoists without collective norms, even in societies in which individuals have information only about their immediate neighbors.
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Roger V. Gould American Journal of Sociology. 2002. Vol. 107. No. 5. P. 1143-1178.
This article offers a formal theoretical model of the emergence of hierarchy that bridges the division between individualistic and structuralist accounts of inequality. In the model, actors reproduce status hierarchies by adjusting their own status-conferring gestures according to collective attributions. These collective attributions are just the aggregate of individual gestures, leading to a self-reinforcing status ranking. Winner-take-all hierarchies are discouraged, however, when people prefer reciprocation of their status-conferring actions. The model therefore depicts a status ranking as an equilibrium resulting from individual responses to the trade-off between social influence and the distaste for making unreciprocated gestures. Analysis of the model generates several precise predictions about the patterns that social networks should exhibit at equilibrium. Data on interaction in task groups, friendship ratings in a fraternity, and play in a set of infant quintuplets is used to show that the formal theory makes unusually accurate predictions about network structure.
Опубликовано на портале: 23-12-2002John Hagan, Alberto Palloni American Journal of Sociology. 1999. Vol. 96. No. 2. P. 265-299.
The historical concept of a criminal class includes a sociological reference to the concentration and recurrence of crime within groups and across generations. Two family-linked processes may lead to the social reproduction of a criminal class: a cultural/characterological process involving child-raising conditions and practices, and a structural/imputational process involving official labeling. Mead's concern about the perpetuation of a "permanent class of criminals" is discussed, and special attention is given to an intergenerational interaction effect of parent and son labeling on subsequent delinquent and criminal behavior. This intergenerational interaction effect is explored, net of the acknowledged role of cultural/characterological influences, which are modeled in several ways using data collected in a well-known London panel study. The article addresses implications of the neglect of labeling effects in contemporary longitudinal research initiatives directed to the formation of crime policy.
The Social Structure of Entrepreneurial Activity: Geographic Concentration of Footwear Production in the United States, 1940 1989 [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 29-05-2004Olav Sorenson, Pino G. Audia American Journal of Sociology. 2000. Vol. 106. No. 2. P. 424 462.
Nearly all industries exhibit geographic concentration. Most theories of the location of industry explain the persistence of these production centers as the result of economic efficiency. This article argues instead that heterogeneity in entrepreneurial opportunities, rather than differential performance, maintains geographic concentration. Entrepreneurs need exposure to existing organizations in the industry to acquire tacit knowledge, obtain important social ties, and build self-confidence. Thus, the current geographic distribution of production places important constraints on entrepreneurial activity. Due to these constraints, new foundings tend to reify the existing geographic distribution of production. Empirical evidence from the shoe industry supports this thesis.
Опубликовано на портале: 23-12-2002Karl O'Lessker American Journal of Sociology. 1969. Vol. 74. No. 1. P. 63-69.
No agreement yet exists among social scientists as to sources of naziism's sudden electoral surge in 1930 and 1932. One widely held view, stressing the importance of the "outcast and apathetic," has been sharply challenged by S. M. Lipset, who argues that electoral support for Hitler was essentially a middle-class phenomenon. But on the basis of a new analysis of the voting returns, I conclude that a combination of former non-voters and traditional Rightists gave naziism its first great success, and the bulk of the middle-class vote went to Hitler only after the Nazis had established themselves as the largest non-Marxist party in Germany.
Опубликовано на портале: 23-12-2002Joan Acker American Journal of Sociology. 1973. Vol. 78. No. 4. P. 936-945.
Although women, as aggregates, have lower social status than men in all known societies, sex-based inequalities have not been considered in most theoretical and empirical work on social stratification. Assumptions about the social position of women, found in the stratification literature, implicitly justify the exclusion of sex as a significant variable. This paper argues that these assumptions are logically contradictory and empirically unsupported. If sex is to be taken as a significant variable, the family can no longer be viewed as the unit in social stratification. Conceptual and methodological problems are generated if the family is not considered as the unit. However, a reconceptualization which includes sex-based inequalities may lead to a more accurate and more complex picture of stratification systems.
Опубликовано на портале: 01-02-2003Erik Olin Wright American Journal of Sociology. 2000. Vol. 105. No. 4. P. 957-1002.
This article proposes a general theoretical framework for understanding the concept of "class compromise" in terms of a "reverse-J" model of the relationship between the associational power of workers and the interests of capitalists: increases in working-class power adversely affect capitalist-class interests until such power crosses some intermediate threshold beyond which further increases in working-class power are potentially beneficial to capitalists' interests. This article argues that the reverse-J curve is itself the result of two distinct kinds of effects of workers' power on capitalists' interests: one, a negative effect, in which workers' power undermines the capacity of capitalists to unilaterally make various kinds of decisions, and the second, a positive effect, in which workers' power helps capitalists solve the various kinds of collective action problems they face.