American Journal of Sociology
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Опубликовано на портале: 23-12-2002Mark Abrahamson American Journal of Sociology. 1973. Vol. 78. No. 5. P. 1236-1246.
This paper presents an analysis of the assumptions that are necessary to test empirically hypotheses from functional theories and from the functional theory of stratification in particular. The study focuses upon Stinchcombe's hypothesis that the income of military-related positions will rise relative to the income of comparable nonmilitary-related positions during times of war. Problems in operationalizing occupational comparability, relative income gains, and wartimes are discussed, and solutions are presented. Data comparing matched occupations between 1939 and 1967 are shown to provide support for Stinchcombe's proposition, and the paper concludes with a discussion of the generalizability of the findings.
Опубликовано на портале: 23-12-2002Joan Acker American Journal of Sociology. 1973. Vol. 78. No. 4. P. 936-945.
Although women, as aggregates, have lower social status than men in all known societies, sex-based inequalities have not been considered in most theoretical and empirical work on social stratification. Assumptions about the social position of women, found in the stratification literature, implicitly justify the exclusion of sex as a significant variable. This paper argues that these assumptions are logically contradictory and empirically unsupported. If sex is to be taken as a significant variable, the family can no longer be viewed as the unit in social stratification. Conceptual and methodological problems are generated if the family is not considered as the unit. However, a reconceptualization which includes sex-based inequalities may lead to a more accurate and more complex picture of stratification systems.