American Journal of Sociology
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Class Origin, Class Destination, and Education: A Cross-National Study of Ten Industrial Nations [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 23-12-2002Hiroshi Ishida, Walter Muller, John M. Ridge American Journal of Sociology. 1995. Vol. 101. No. 1. P. 145-193.
This article examines three themes about the relationships among class origin, education, and class destination in 10 industrial nations: (1) differential access to education for different class origins, (2) the allocation of class positions by education, and (3) the role of education in class reproduction and mobility. The patterns of association between class origin and education and between education and class destination are similar across the 10 nations. However, the strength of these associations shows cross-national variations. Class reproduction and mobility involve different social processes, which are differentially affected by education. However, a cross-national similarity emerges again in the way education mediates the association between class origin and destination. The conclusion presents some implications of this analysis for the study of comparative macrosociology.
Опубликовано на портале: 23-12-2002Theodore P. Gerber, Michael Hout American Journal of Sociology. 1995. Vol. 101. No. 3. P. 611-660.
A national survey of educational stratification in Russia reveals substantial inequality of educational attainments throughout the Soviet period. Parents' education, main earner's occupation, and geographical origin contributed to these inequalities. Gender preferences for men were removed, and for some transitions reversed. Although secondary education grew rapidly, higher education failed to keep pace. This disparity led to a university-level enrollment squeeze, and the resulting bottleneck hurt disadvantaged classes more than advantaged ones. In turn the effect of social origins on entering university increased after 1965. The upshot was no net change in the origin-based differences in likelihood of attaining a VUZ degree across three postwar cohorts.