American Journal of Sociology
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Опубликовано на портале: 22-05-2004Erik Olin Wright American Journal of Sociology. 2000. Vol. 105. No. 6. P. 1559-1571.
In commenting on Aage Sorensen's "Toward a Sounder Basis for Class Analysis," Wright argues against the ideas that exploitation can be fruitfully defined in terms of rent-generating processes or that a class analysis built on such foundations will be satisfactory.
Опубликовано на портале: 29-05-2004Xueguang Zhou American Journal of Sociology. 2000. Vol. 105. No. 4. P. 1135-1174.
Using panel data of 4,730 urban residents drawn from 20 cities in China, this article examines changes in income determinants between the prereform and reform eras. To guide this empirical study, a conceptual model is developed that emphasizes the coevolution of politics and markets to synthesize theoretical ideas in the recent debate on the transformation of state socialist societies. The findings show significant changes in returns to education and in the rise of private/hybrid firms in the reform era. There is also strong evidence of institutional persistence in returns to positional power and in the organizational hierarchy. These findings reveal multifaceted processes of transformation that call for more sophisticated theoretical models and in-depth institutional analyses.
Опубликовано на портале: 29-05-2004Paul Ingram, Peter W. Roberts American Journal of Sociology. 2000. Vol. 106. No. 2. P. 387-421.
Friendships with competitors can improve the performance of organizations through the mechanisms of enhanced collaboration, mitigated competition, and better information exchange. Moreover, these benefits are best achieved when competing managers are embedded in a cohesive network of friendships (i.e., one with many friendships among competitors), since cohesion facilitates the verification of information culled from the network, eliminates the structural holes faced by customers, and facilitates the normative control of competitors. The first part of this analysis examines the performance implications of the friendship-network structure within the Sydney hotel industry, with performance being the yield (i.e., revenue per available room) of a given hotel. This shows that friendships with competitors lead to dramatic improvements in hotel yields. Performance is further improved if a manager's competitors are themselves friends, evidencing the benefit of cohesive friendship networks. The second part of the analysis examines the structure of friendship ties among hotel managers and shows that friendships are more likely between managers who are competitors.
Опубликовано на портале: 29-05-2004Trond Petersen, Ishak Saporta, Marc-David L. Seidel American Journal of Sociology. 2000. Vol. 106. No. 3. P. 763-816.
This study focuses on the impact of sex, race, and social networks, to analyze the hiring process in a midsized high-technology organization, using information on all 35,229 applicants in a 10-year period (1985 94). For gender, the process is entirely meritocratic: age and education account for all sex differences. But even without taking into account the two meritocratic variables, there are small if no differences between men and women at all stages in the hiring process. For ethnic minorities, the process is partly meritocratic but partly reliant upon social networks. Once referral method is taken into account, all race effects disappear. In hiring, ethnic minorities are thus disadvantaged in the processes that take place before the organization is contacted. They lack access to or utilize less well the social networks that lead to high success in getting hired.
Опубликовано на портале: 29-05-2004Linda D. Molim, Nobuyuki Takahashi, Gretchen Peterson American Journal of Sociology. 2000. Vol. 105. No. 5. P. 1396-1427.
The classical exchange theorists proposed that trust is more likely to develop between partners when exchange occurs without explicit negotiations or bringing agreements. Under these conditions, the risk and uncertainty of exchange provide the opportunity for partners to demonstrate their trustworthiness. This study develops the theoretical implications of this proposition and conducts an experimental test that compares levels of both trust and commitment in two forms or direct exchange, negotiated and reciprocal. The results support the classical proposition, showing that reciprocal exchange produces stronger trust and affective commitment that negotiated exchange, and that behaviors signaling the partners trustworthiness have greater impact on trust in reciprocal exchange.
Опубликовано на портале: 22-05-2004Roberto M. Fernandez, Emilio J. Castilla, Paul Moore American Journal of Sociology. 2000. Vol. 105. No. 5. P. 1288-1356.
This article argues that a common organizational practice the hiring of new workers via employee referrals provides key insights into the notion of social capital. Employers who use such hiring methods are quintessential social capitalists, viewing workers social connections as resources in which they can invest in order to gain economic returns in the form of better hiring outcomes. Using unique data on the dollar costs of screening, hiring, and training, this article finds that the firm s investment in the social capital of its employees yields significant economic returns.
Опубликовано на портале: 29-05-2004Nobuyuki Takahashi American Journal of Sociology. 2000. Vol. 105. No. 4. P. 1105-1134.
The existence of generalized exchange characterized by unilateral resource giving has been a puzzle when we assume rational actors, because free riding can occur. This article first identifies pure-generalized exchange in which each actor gives resources to the recipient(s) of his choice. Then, it proposes the fairness-based selective-giving strategy. An actor adopting this strategy selects a recipient whose behaviors satisfy her criterion of fairness, provided perfect information is given. The results of evolutionary simulation show that pure-generalized exchange can emerge among egoists without collective norms, even in societies in which individuals have information only about their immediate neighbors.
The Social Structure of Entrepreneurial Activity: Geographic Concentration of Footwear Production in the United States, 1940 1989 [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 29-05-2004Olav Sorenson, Pino G. Audia American Journal of Sociology. 2000. Vol. 106. No. 2. P. 424 462.
Nearly all industries exhibit geographic concentration. Most theories of the location of industry explain the persistence of these production centers as the result of economic efficiency. This article argues instead that heterogeneity in entrepreneurial opportunities, rather than differential performance, maintains geographic concentration. Entrepreneurs need exposure to existing organizations in the industry to acquire tacit knowledge, obtain important social ties, and build self-confidence. Thus, the current geographic distribution of production places important constraints on entrepreneurial activity. Due to these constraints, new foundings tend to reify the existing geographic distribution of production. Empirical evidence from the shoe industry supports this thesis.
Опубликовано на портале: 01-02-2003Erik Olin Wright American Journal of Sociology. 2000. Vol. 105. No. 4. P. 957-1002.
This article proposes a general theoretical framework for understanding the concept of "class compromise" in terms of a "reverse-J" model of the relationship between the associational power of workers and the interests of capitalists: increases in working-class power adversely affect capitalist-class interests until such power crosses some intermediate threshold beyond which further increases in working-class power are potentially beneficial to capitalists' interests. This article argues that the reverse-J curve is itself the result of two distinct kinds of effects of workers' power on capitalists' interests: one, a negative effect, in which workers' power undermines the capacity of capitalists to unilaterally make various kinds of decisions, and the second, a positive effect, in which workers' power helps capitalists solve the various kinds of collective action problems they face.