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American Journal of Sociology

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Опубликовано на портале: 29-05-2004
James N. Baron, Michael T. Hannan, Diane Burton American Journal of Sociology. 2001.  Vol. 106. No. 4. P. 960-1012. 
Organizational theories, especially ecological perspectives, emphasize the disruptive effects of change. However, the mechanisms producing these effects are seldom examined explicitly. This article examines one such mechanism employee turnover. Analyzing a sample of high-technology start-ups, we show that changes in the employment models or blueprints embraced by organizational leaders increase turnover, which in turn adversely affects subsequent organizational performance. Turnover associated with organizational change appears to be concentrated among the most senior employees, suggesting "old guard disenchantment" as the primary cause. The results are consistent with the claim of neoinstitutionalist scholars that founders impose cultural blueprints on nascent organizations and with the claim of organizational ecologists that altering such blueprints is disruptive and destabilizing.
Опубликовано на портале: 29-05-2004
Damon J. Phillips American Journal of Sociology. 2001.  Vol. 106. No. 4. P. 1058-1098. 
This article argues that there is a promotion paradox a negative relation between firm life chances and employee promotion chances. Author argues that this is due to a firms bargaining power, which increases with firms competitive strength. Author finds strong support using data on 50 years of Silicon Valley law firms and attorneys. Young, small, specialist, and low-status firms are more likely to fail but are also contexts with the highest promotion likelihood. Moreover, except for those firms that are "near death," an associate's promotion likelihood increases with the law firm's probability of failure.
Опубликовано на портале: 22-05-2004
Alberto Palloni, Douglas S. Massey, Miguel Ceballos American Journal of Sociology. 2001.  Vol. 106. No. 5. P. 1262-1298. 
This article uses a multistate hazard model to test the network hypothesis of social capital theory. The effects of family network ties on individual migration are estimated while controlling for measured and unmeasured conditions that influence migration risks for all family members. Results suggest that social network effects are robust to the introduction of controls for human capital, common household characteristics, and unobserved conditions. Estimates also confirm the ancillary hypothesis, which states that diffuse social capital distributed among community and household members strongly influences the likelihood of out-migration, thus validating social capital theory in general and the network hypothesis in particular.