American Sociological Review
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Опубликовано на портале: 22-05-2004Lane Kenworthy American Sociological Review. 2002. Vol. 67. No. 3. P. 367-388.
A number of studies have found an association between corporatist institutions and low unemployment in the 1970s and 1980s. Three gaps in the understanding of corporatism's labor market effects are addressed. The results suggest that wage coordination was conducive to low unemployment in the 1980s because it fostered moderation in labor costs, spurred faster economic growth, and encouraged governments to more aggressively pursue policies to reduce unemployment.
Опубликовано на портале: 23-12-2002Murray A. Straus American Sociological Review. 1962. Vol. 27. No. 3. P. 326-335.
The theoretical and research literature on self-imposed postponement of gratifications or satisfactions is reviewed with emphasis on the relation of such a "Deferred Gratification Pattern" (DGP) to social class and social mobility. Three hypotheses growing out of this review were tested on 338 male high school students. The hypothesis of a deferred gratification pattern received some support from the fact that scales with reproducibilities from .92 to .96 were developed for deferment of five adolescent needs (affiliation, aggression, consumption, economic independence, and sex); and by the intercorrelation of these scales. The hypothesis of positive correlation between socioeconomic status and DGP was not supported. The hypothesis of positive correlation between the DGP scales and achievement role-performance and role-orientation was supported. These relationships were not eliminated by controls for socioeconomic status and intelligence. Findings are interpreted as supporting the theory that need deferment is functional for social mobility in American society.
Опубликовано на портале: 23-12-2002Seymour Martin Lipset American Sociological Review. 1959. Vol. 24. No. 4. P. 482-501.
A variety of evidence from many countries suggests that low status and low education predispose individuals to favor extremist, intolerant, and transvaluational forms of political and religious behavior. The evidence includes reports from surveys concerning differential attitudes among the various strata towards democratic values, including civil liberties for unpopular political groups, civil rights for ethnic minorities, legitimacy of opposition, and proper limits on the power of national political leaders; psychological research on the personality traits of different strata; data on the composition and appeal of chiliastic religious sects; and materials bearing on the support of authoritarian movements. The factors operating to support this predisposition are all those which make for a lack of "sophistication," a complex view of causal relations, and heightened insecurity, both objective and subjective. These findings suggest that the success of the Communist Party among those of low status in poorer nations is positively related to its authoritarian character.
Developing Difference: Social Organization and the Rise of the Auto Industries of South Korea, Taiwan, Spain, and Argentina [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 22-05-2004Nicole Woolsey Biggart, Mauro F. Guillén American Sociological Review. 1999. Vol. 64. No. 5. P. 722-747.
Theories of economic development as diverse as modernization, dependency, world-system, and market reform take a "critical factor" view. Proponents of each theory argue that countries fail to develop because of an obstacle to economic growth. We argue instead that neither a critical factor nor a single path leads to economic development; viable paths vary. Economic growth depends on linking a country's historically developed patterns of social organization to the opportunities of global markets. We formulate a sociological theory of cross-national comparative advantage including not only economic factor endowments but also institutionalized patterns of authority and organization. Such patterns legitimize certain actors and certain relationships among those actors, which facilitate development success in some activities but not in others. We illustrate this approach to understanding development outcomes with a comparative analysis of the difficult rise of the automobile assembly and components industries in South Korea, Taiwan, Spain, and Argentina.
Опубликовано на портале: 17-09-2003Xiaogang Wu, Yu Xie American Sociological Review. 2003. Vol. 68. No. 3. P. 425-442.
Previous work on the market transition in reform-era China has missed the direct link between individuals' labour market history and individuals' labour market outcome. A typology of workers is developed based on individuals' labour market histories, and a model of selective mobility of workers from the state sector to the market sector is offered as an explanation for higher earnings returns to education in the market sector. Analysis of data from an urban survey in China reveals that commonly observed higher earnings returns to education in the market sector are limited only to recent market entrants, and that early market entrants resemble state workers in both their level of earnings and returns to education. These results challenge the prevailing wisdom that education is necessarily more highly rewarded in the market sector. Thus it is concluded that higher returns to education in the market sector should not be construed as being caused by marketization per se, and instead that the sorting process of workers in labour markets helps explain the sectoral differentials.
Опубликовано на портале: 22-07-2003Linda Brewster Stearns, Kenneth D. Allan American Sociological Review. 1996. Vol. 61. No. 4. P. 699-718.
Опубликовано на портале: 17-09-2003Richard Lachmann American Sociological Review. 2003. Vol. 68. No. 3. P. 346-372.
Why does the leading economic power of its time lose its dominance? Competing theories are tested through a comparison of four historical cases-the Florentine city-state, the Spanish empire, and the Dutch and British nation-states. Institutional context determined social actors' capacities to apply their polities' human and material resources to foreign economic competition. Specifically, the dominant elites in each polity established the social relations and institutions that protected them from domestic challenges from rival elites and classes. But these relations and institutions had the effect of limiting elites' capacities to adapt to foreign economic rivals: Elites acting locally determined their capacities to act globally.
Опубликовано на портале: 17-09-2003Xueguang Zhou American Sociological Review. 2003. Vol. 68. No. 1. P. 75-102.
Interfirm contracts represent common economic relations in the marketplace; they are also deeply embedded in social relations and social institutions. In the context of China's transitional economy, this study examines how three mechanisms-economizing transaction costs, network-based social relations, and institutional links-- affect interfirm contractual relationships in (1) the choice of search channels for contractual partners, (2) the formality and provisions in a contract, and (3) the intensity of social interaction in contract implementation. Empirical evidence is drawn from information collected on 877 contracts from 620 firms in two Chinese cities, Beijing and Guangzhou. The authors find distinct roles of social relations, institutional links, and regulatory environments in the initiation of contractual partners and the forms of contracts adopted, whereas transaction-specific factors play a significant role in the intensity of social interaction in contract implementation. These findings suggest the interplay among economic calculativeness, social networks and institutional links, and the complementarity in the underlying theoretical ideas.
Embeddedness in the Making of Financial Capital: How Social Relations and Networks Benefit Firms Seeking Financing [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 22-05-2004Brian Uzzi American Sociological Review. 1999. Vol. 64. No. 4. P. 481-505.
The article investigates how social embeddedness affects an organization's acquisition and cost of financial capital in middle-market banking-a lucrative but understudied financial sector. Using existing theory and original fieldwork, Author develops a framework to explain how embeddedness can influence which firms get capital and at what cost. I then statistically examine my claims using national data on small-business lending. At the level of dyadic ties, author finds that firms that embed their commercial transactions with their lender in social attachments receive lower interest rates on loans. At the network level, firms are more likely to get loans and to receive lower interest rates on loans if their network of bank ties has a mix of embedded ties and arm's-length ties. These network effects arise because embedded ties motivate network partners to share private resources, while arm's-length ties facilitate access to public information on market prices and loan opportunities so that the benefits of different types of ties are optimized within one network. Author concludes with a discussion of how the value produced by a network is at a premium when it creates a bridge that links the public information of markets with the private resources of relationships.
Опубликовано на портале: 22-05-2004Irene Browne American Sociological Review. 1997. Vol. 62. No. 2. P. 236-252.
For the first time in this century, Black women are participating in the labor force at lower rates than are White women. The Black-White gap in female labor force participation is driven by those in the severest need of income-women heading households. I compare three explanations of the Black-White gap in labor force participation among female household heads-lack of human capital, lack of opportunities resulting from industrial restructuring, and disarticulation from mainstream institutions as described by theories of the "underclass." Using a representative national sample from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics, I find that lower rates of labor force participation among Black women heading households are determined by Black-White differences in human capital as well as by characteristics associated with a breakdown in the processes linking Black women to the labor market. Overall, the largest impediments to labor force participation among women heading households are dropping out of high school, having a child under the age of six in the household, and being a long-term welfare recipient.
Exploring the Limits of the New Institutionalism: The Causes and Consequences of Illegitimate Organizational Change [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 22-07-2003Matthew S. Kraatz, Edward J. Zajac American Sociological Review. 1996. Vol. 61. No. 5. P. 812-836.
Family change, employment transitions, and the welfare state: household income dynamics in the United States and Germany [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 22-05-2004Thomas A. DiPrete, Patricia A. McManus American Sociological Review. 2000. Vol. 65. No. 3. P. 343-370.
Since the demise of modernization theory, social scientists have sought explanations for persisting differences in the stratification of industrialized societies, primarily by studying how educational and labor market institutions shape the life chances of individuals. This approach undervalues two key features of any stratification system: family dynamics and the welfare state. Employment changes, changes in household composition, and changes in the employment situation of a spouse or partner can all trigger large shifts in income and material well-being. The impact of these events is mediated by public tax and transfer mechanisms and by private actions taken by household members. This comparative analysis of household income dynamics in the United States and Germany shows that variations in welfare state policy produce distinct societal patterns of income mobility, and furthermore, shows that the relative importance of labor market events, family change, and welfare state policies for income dynamics depends on gender. The strong interrelationship between individual incentives and the structure of opportunity produces an asymmetry in the long-term impact of events. The negative effects of events that reduce income generally decay over time, while the effects of positive events generally persist.
Опубликовано на портале: 17-09-2003Jeffrey Kentor, Terry Boswell American Sociological Review. 2003. Vol. 68. No. 2. P. 301-313.
Scholars have long debated the impact of foreign investment on the economies of less developed countries. Many argue that foreign investment is beneficial for the host economy; others argue, just as forcefully, that dependence on foreign capital is detrimental. This study offers a new conceptualization of foreign capital dependence that may resolve this debate: foreign investment concentration, which is the proportion of a host country's foreign direct investment stocks owned by the single largest investing country. The theory is that high investment concentration limits the autonomy of state and business elites to act in the long-term interests of domestic growth. In a series of cross-national panel regression models of 39 less developed countries estimated at five-year intervals from 1970 to 1995, the often cited negative effects of foreign capital penetration on growth in GNP per capita are dramatically reduced or entirely replaced when investment concentration, and the related concepts of export commodity and trade partner concentrations, are included in the analyses. Foreign investment concentration has a significant, long-term negative effect on growth that is strongest over the initial five-year period and decreases over the next 15 years. A similar effect is also found for the 1990-1997 period. This structural aspect of capital dependence has a greater impact on development than does the overall level of foreign capital penetration.
Опубликовано на портале: 23-12-2002Randall Collins American Sociological Review. 1971. Vol. 36. No. 6. P. 1002-1019.
Two theories are considered in accounting for the increased schooling required for employment in advanced industrial society: (a) a technical-function theory, stating that educational requirements reflect the demands for greater skills on the job due to technological change; and (b) a conflict theory, stating that employment requirements reflect the efforts of competing status groups to monopolize or dominate jobs by imposing their cultural standards on the selection process. A review of the evidence indicates that the conflict theory is more strongly supported. The main dynamic of rising educational requirements in the United States has been primarily the expansion of mobility opportunities through the school system, rather than autonomous changes in the structure of employment. It is argued that the effort to build a comprehensive theory of stratification is best advanced by viewing those effects of technological change on educational requirements that are substantiated within the basic context of a conflict theory of stratification.
Опубликовано на портале: 29-05-2004Leslie McCall American Sociological Review. 2000. Vol. 65. No. 2. P. 234-255.
The new inequality is often characterized by the increasing wage gap between workers with a college education and those without. Yet, although the gap in hourly wages between college-educated and non-college-educated women is high and rising, the topic has been overshadowed by research on gender inequality and wage inequality among men. Using the 1990 5-percent Public Use Microdata Samples, independent sources of macro data, and controls for individual human capital characteristics, I examine the association between the college/non-college wage gap and key aspects of local economic conditions for women and men. While the college/non-college wage gap among women is comparable in size to the gap among men, significant gender differences emerge in the underlying sources of high wage gaps in over 500 labor markets across the United States. Compared with men, flexible and insecure employment conditions (e.g., joblessness, casualization, and immigration) are more important in fostering high wage gaps among women than are technology, trade, and industrial composition, the prevailing explanations of rising wage inequality over time. Based on these gender differences, I reconsider the debate on labor-market restructuring and inequality and discuss a new analytical focus on differences in within-gender inequality.