American Sociological Review
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Gender, the Welfare State, and Public Employment: A Comparative Study of Seven Industrialized Countries [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 22-05-2004Janet C. Gornick, Jerry A. Jacobs American Sociological Review. 1998. Vol. 63. No. 5. P. 688-710.
Using data from the Luxembourg Income Study (LIS), we explore the influence of government employment on the gender gap in earnings in seven countries. We address four questions on the effects of public-sector employment on the gender gap in earnings: (1) Do governments offer jobs that are comparatively high paying? (2) Does public employment benefit some workers, such as low-paid workers, more than others? (3) Are public-sector employment advantages explained by differences in worker characteristics and the occupational mix? (4) What is the effect of public employment-its extent and its pay structure-on gender gaps in wages? Our results indicate marked variation across liberal, conservative, and social democratic welfare states, but reveal a number of uniformities as well. In most of the seven countries in our sample, public-sector workers earn more on average than do workers in the private sector, and most earnings advantages are concentrated on the low end of the earnings distribution. The effect of public employment on the overall gender gap in wages is limited in most countries. We discuss the implications of these results for theory and research on gender and the welfare state.
Опубликовано на портале: 19-05-2004Mark S. Mizruchi, Linda Brewster Stearns American Sociological Review. 2001. Vol. 66. No. 5. P. 647-671.
Economic actors confront various forms of uncertainty making decisions, and how they deal with these obstacles may affect their success in accomplishing their goals. This study examines the means by which relationship managers in a major commercial bank attempt to close transactions with their corporate customers. It is hypothesized that under conditions of high uncertainty, bankers will rely on colleagues with whom they are strongly tied for advice on and support of their deals. Drawing on recent network theory, it is also hypothesized that transactions in which bankers use relatively sparse approval networks are more likely to successfully close than are transactions involving dense approval networks. Both hypotheses are supported. Bankers are faced with a strategic paradox: Their tendency to rely on those they trust in dealing with uncertainty creates conditions that render deals less likely to be closed successfully. This paradox represents an example of unanticipated consequences of purposive social action.
Glass Ceiling Effect or Cohort Effect? A Longitudinal Study of the Gender Earnings Gap for Engineers, 1982 to 1989 [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 22-07-2003Laurie A. Morgan American Sociological Review. 1998. Vol. 63. No. 4. P. 479-493.
Hazards of the Market: The Continuity and Dissolution of Interorganizational Market Relationships [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 22-05-2004Wayne E. Baker, Robert R. Faulkner, Gene A. Fisher American Sociological Review. 1998. Vol. 63. No. 2. P. 147-176.
We propose a theory of the market as an "intertemporal" process that integrates multiple theoretical perspectives. Using event-history methods, we analyze the dissolution of interorganizational market ties between advertising agencies and their clients as a function of three forces-competition, power, and institutional forces. The informal "rules of exchange" institutionalized in the "emergence" phase of the advertising services market include exclusivity (sole-source) and loyalty (infrequent switching). We find that most exchange relationships between advertising agencies and their clients are indeed exclusive, and most last for several years; but competition, power, and institutional forces support or undermine these rules. Most institutional forces reduce the risk of dissolution of agency-client ties. Powerful advertising agencies mobilize resources to increase tie stability, but powerful clients mobilize resources to increase or decrease stability. Competition is the weakest market force, but it has a consistent and substantial effect on tie dissolution: Competition always increases the risk of dissolution. We conclude that the market is institutionalized as imperfectly repeated patterns of exchange, because competition and changing norms about the duration of market ties destabilize market relationships.
Опубликовано на портале: 22-07-2003Jimy M. Sanders, Victor Nee American Sociological Review. 1996. Vol. 61. No. 2. P. 231-249.
Опубликовано на портале: 22-05-2004Arthur S. Alderson, Francois Nielsen American Sociological Review. 1999. Vol. 64. No. 4. P. 606-616.
We reconsider the role of foreign investment in income inequality in light of recent critiques that question the results of quantitative cross-national research on foreign capital penetration. We analyze an unbalanced cross-national data set in which countries contribute different numbers of observations, with a maximum of 88 countries and 488 observations, dated from 1967 to 1994. Random-effects regression models that control for unmeasured country heterogeneity are used to investigate effects of foreign capital penetration on inequality (measured as the Gini coefficient) against the background of an internal-developmental model of inequality. We adapt Firebaugh's (1992, 1996) critique of the literature on the effect of foreign investment on economic growth to the study of income inequality and find that the stock of foreign direct investment has an effect on inequality that is independent of the mechanisms identified by Firebaugh. We explore Tsai's (1995) claim that the effect of foreign capital penetration is spurious and find that foreign stock has a significant positive effect on inequality net of region-specific differences. An alternative interpretation of the findings of the foreign investment/inequality literature is discussed in light of the discovery of an inverted-U shaped relationship between income inequality and foreign investment stock per capita. We conclude that thinking on the relationship between income inequality and investment dependence should be revised in light of an investment-development path relating the inflow and outflow of foreign capital to economic development.
Опубликовано на портале: 17-09-2003Philip N. Cohen, Matt L. Huffman American Sociological Review. 2003. Vol. 68. No. 3. P. . 443-463.
Although abundant evidence documents pay penalties for female-dominated jobs, there is also substantial variation in gender inequality across U.S. metropolitan areas. These lines of research are united by exploring whether occupational gender segregation at the labor market level exacerbates the wage penalty associated with female-dominated jobs, and investigating the association between gender composition and the size of within-job gender gaps. Results show that the penalty accruing to female-dominated jobs is weaker in more integrated labor markets, but only among men, and that labor market integration does not significantly influence the association between the gender composition of jobs and within-job inequality. Further, even women in completely segregated jobs benefit from a context of occupational integration. It is concluded that, although gender devaluation is widespread and systematic, variation in gender composition effects across local contexts is an important dimension of gender inequality.
Опубликовано на портале: 19-09-2003Jason Beckfield American Sociological Review. 2003. Vol. 68. No. 3. P. 401-424.
Recent research reveals strong effects of involvement in international organizations on state policies, but much of this research downplays inequality in world political participation, and there is only a limited understanding of what explains world-polity ties. Using data on memberships in intergovernmental and international nongovernmental organizations (IGOs and INGOs) for 1960 through 2000, this study analyses inequality in the world polity. IGO ties are fairly evenly distributed, but the level of inequality in INGO ties is as high as the level of world income inequality. Since I960, inequality in ties to IGOs decreased sharply, but inequality in ties to INGOs remained more stable. A conflict-centered model of the world polity is developed here that explains world political participation as a function of material and symbolic conflict. Rich, core, Western states and societies have significantly more ties to the world polity than do others. Powerful states dominate IGOs less now than they did in 1960, but rich, core, Western societies have grown more dominant in the INGO field.
Опубликовано на портале: 22-05-2004Cecilia L. Ridgeway American Sociological Review. 1997. Vol. 62. No. 2. P. 218-235.
How can we explain the persistence of gender hierarchy over transformations in its socioeconomic base? Part of the answer lies in the mediation of gender inequality by taken-for-granted interactional processes that rewrite inequality into new institutional arrangements. The problems of interacting cause actors to automatically sex-categorize others and, thus, to cue gender stereotypes that have various effects on interactional outcomes, usually by modifying the performance of other, more salient identities. Because changes in the status dimension of gender stereotypes lag behind changes in resource inequalities, interactional status processes can reestablish gender inequalities in new structural forms. Interactional sex categorization also biases the choice of comparison others, causing men and women to judge differently the rewards available to them. Operating in workplace relations, these processes conserve inequality by driving the gender-labeling of jobs, constructing people as gender-interested actors, contributing to employers' discriminatory preferences, and mediating men's and women's perceptions of alternatives and their willingness to settle for given job outcomes.
Опубликовано на портале: 19-09-2003Moon-Kie Jung American Sociological Review. 2003. Vol. 68. No. 3. P. 373-400.
A normative desire for interracialism undergirds and structures the sociology of race. However, focusing almost exclusively on racial divisions and conflicts, the sociology of race rarely subjects interracialism to explicit analysis. One consequence of this somewhat peculiar situation is that interracialism is understood negatively, as deracialization-the removal of racism. Even the few studies that appear to redress this negativity through explicit analysis reproduce it. Prototypically, there has long been a scholarly consensus that Hawaii's interracial working-class movement of the late 1930s and 1940s presupposed deracialization: that a "colour-blind" class ideology, advanced by the left-led International Longshoremen's and Warehousemen's Union, effaced racial divisions. Refuting this interpretation, this paper demonstrates that a deracializing class ideology was not straightforwardly adopted by Hawaii's racially divided workers. Instead, a leftist ideology of class served as the initial pivot for an affirmative transformation of race, producing an interracial ideology that rearticulated, rather than disarticulated, race and class. The paper concludes with several implications of reconceptualizing interracialism affirmatively.
Опубликовано на портале: 22-07-2003Arne L. Kalleberg, Mark E. Van Buren American Sociological Review. 1996. Vol. 61. No. 1. P. 47-66.
Is Husband's Class Enough? Class Location and Class Identity in the United States, Sweden, Norway, and Australia [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 23-12-2002Janeen Baxter American Sociological Review. 1994. Vol. 59. No. 2. P. 220-235.
Class analysis traditionally has focused on the position of men in the occupational system: Women have been ignored completely or classified according to the status of the male head of household. This approach implies that women derive their class identities from the class locations of their husbands. However, recent research suggests that this "conventional" view of class analysis is challenged by women's increasing independence from men. I address this issue using comparative data for the United States, Sweden, Norway, and Australia. I use a series of logistic regression models to examine the relationship between husband's and wife's class locations and subjective class identifications. Results indicate that husband's class location is a significant predictor of husband's and wife's class identifications. Education is also a key determinant of subjective class identity. There is no evidence of significant differences among countries in these patterns.
Опубликовано на портале: 22-05-2004Ted Mouw American Sociological Review. 2000. Vol. 65. No. 5. P. 730-753.
The spatial mismatch hypothesis argues that residential segregation and job decentralization combine to adversely affect the employment opportunities of minorities. While employment is increasingly located outside of central cities, residential segregation prevents minorities from moving closer to suburban jobs. Although this hypothesis has intuitive appeal, there is little consensus regarding its empirical validity. This study (1) constructs detailed geographic measures of changes in employment opportunities, (2) estimates a fixed-effects model of changes in the unemployment rate over time, and (3) accounts for spatial correlation in the error term. Neighborhood-level employment data from 1980 and 1990 are used to measure changes in the distance to jobs from census tracts in the Detroit and Chicago metropolitan areas. In both cities, the decentralization of employment and the loss of manufacturing jobs resulted in substantial changes in the spatial distribution of employment. The empirical results indicate that a decline in the spatial proximity to employment is associated with an increase in the unemployment rate for blacks.
Опубликовано на портале: 17-09-2003Andrew G. Walder American Sociological Review. 2002. Vol. 67. No. 2. P. 231-253.
When market reform generates rapid growth in an agrarian subsistence economy, changes in inequality may be due to economic growth and structural change rather than to the intrinsic features of markets. The case of post-Mao China is examined using nationally representative survey data gathered in 1996 to address unresolved questions about findings from 1980s' surveys.