American Sociological Review
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Опубликовано на портале: 12-12-2002Michael Hout, Clem Brooks, Jeff Manza American Sociological Review. 1995. Vol. 60. No. 6. P. 805-828.
We present evidence of a historic realignment in the relationship between class and voting behavior in U.S. presidential elections in the postwar period. We take advantage of recent advances in class analysis and statistical methodology to introduce a distinction between "traditional" class voting and "total" class voting. Neither shows a decline in the postwar era. The realignment occurred since 1968, as professionals and nonmanagerial white-collar workers moved from voting for Republicans to supporting Democratic presidential candidates. Stronger support for Republicans among the self-employed and among managers has more than offset the shift of professionals and nonmanagerial white-collar workers to the Democrats. Skilled blue-collar workers have become volatile, moving away from their historic support for the Democratic Party without firmly attaching themselves to the Republican Party. Significant class differences in voter turnout also contribute to the total association between class and voting outcomes.
Опубликовано на портале: 23-04-2004Howard S. Becker, Blanche Geer American Sociological Review. 1958. Vol. 3. No. 23.
Статья Говарда Бекера и Бланш Гир «Судьба идеализма в медицинской школе» посвящена вопросам профессиональной социализации студентов медицинских школ. Исследуются позитивные и негативные составляющие данного процесса. Отмечается, что студенты приходят в медицинские школы с идеалистическими представлениями как о характере своей будущей профессиональной деятельности, так и о содержании своего образования. Студенты полагают, что на профессиональном поприще их ожидает важное общественное служение, что полученная ими подготовка будет востребованной в их медицинской практике. Однако в процессе обучения студентам приходится расставаться со многими иллюзиями относительно своей профессии и качества получаемого образования. Оказывается, что учебная программа первых лет обучения не предполагает практического знакомства с медициной, то есть взаимодействия с пациентами, и большинство дисциплин имеют лишь отдаленное отношение к врачебной практике. Это ведет к разочарованию в профессиональном образовании и подталкивает студентов к поиску прагматичных и даже циничных стратегий своего поведения во время обучения. Уже в первый год обучения в медицинской школе оказывается провальным с точки зрения усвоения будущими врачами альтруистических ценностей своей профессии. Формируется характерная субкультура студенческого сообщества, характеризующаяся ярко выраженным цинизмом. На втором и последующих курсах содержание обучения меняется студенты получают возможность практического использования теоретических знаний, взаимодействуя с «живыми» пациентами: студенты берут клинические интервью, выясняют историю болезни, составляют карту пациента и пытаются ставить предварительный диагноз. Изменения учебныз программ создают новые обстоятельства, однако не восстанавливают прежнего идеалистического отношения к медицинской профессии. Авторы делают вывод, что идеалистические ценности профессионального служения могут быть возрождены, если будет снижено влияние субкультуры студенческого сообщества медицинских школ, субкультуры, ключевым звеном которой является цинизм.
Опубликовано на портале: 23-12-2002Dennis H. Wrong American Sociological Review. 1959. Vol. 24. No. 6. P. 772-782.
The functional theory of stratification advanced by Davis and Moore attempts to explain the universality and the necessity of inequality in societies with a complex division of labor, a task that is independent of efforts to explain the division of labor itself or the intergenerational perpetuation of inequalities along family lines. The theory is so general, however, that it excludes none of the Utopian models of "classless societies" proposed by Western thinkers and, its critics to the contrary notwithstanding, says nothing whatsoever about the range of inequality and the determinants of the range in concrete societies. The theory appears to understate the degree to which positions are inherited by failing to view societies in long-range historical perspective. In common with the arguments of its critics, it also ignores the possible disruptive consequences of mobility and equality of opportunity, a theme notably neglected by American sociologists.
Опубликовано на портале: 23-12-2002Richard F. Hamilton American Sociological Review. 1966. Vol. 31. No. 2. P. 192-199.
A test of claims made about white-collar workers shows the following: about half identify themselves as "working-class." Those identifying themselves as middle-class are not marginal; the working-class identifiers are the ones who have low incomes. Working-class identifiers report working-class origins and middle-class identifiers indicate middle-class origins. "Authoritarianism" is not especially prevalent among the clerical workers who are economically marginal. Some comparative materials are examined and alternative lines of theory indicated.
The Paradox of Redistribution and Strategies of Equality: Welfare State Institutions, Inequality, and Poverty in the Western Countries [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 22-05-2004Walter Korpi, Joakim Palme American Sociological Review. 1998. Vol. 63. No. 5. P. 661-687.
Debates on how to reduce poverty and inequality have focused on two controversial questions: Should social policies be targeted to low-income groups or be universal? Should benefits be equal for all or earnings-related? Traditional arguments in favor of targeting and flat-rate benefits, focusing on the distribution of the money actually transferred, neglect three policy-relevant considerations: (1) The size of redistributive budgets is not fixed but reflects the structure of welfare state institutions. (2) A trade-off exists between the degree of low-income targeting and the size of redistributive budgets. (3) Outcomes of market-based distribution are often more unequal than those of earnings-related social insurance programs. We argue that social insurance institutions are of central importance for redistributive outcomes. Using new data, our comparative analyses of the effects of different institutional types of welfare states on poverty and inequality indicate that institutional differences lead to unexpected outcomes and generate the paradox of redistribution: The more we target benefits at the poor and the more concerned we are with creating equality via equal public transfers to all, the less likely we are to reduce poverty and inequality.
The Permeability of Class Boundaries to Intergenerational Mobility Among Men in the United States, Canada, Norway and Sweden [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 23-12-2002Mark Western, Erik Olin Wright American Sociological Review. 1994. Vol. 59. No. 4. P. 606-629.
We explore the differential permeability of three class boundaries--the boundaries determined by property, authority and expertise--to intergenerational mobility among men in four developed capitalist economies: the United States, Canada, Norway and Sweden. We conclude: (1) In all four countries, the authority boundary is the most permeable to intergenerational mobility; (2) in the two North American countries, the patterns of permeability of class boundaries are broadly consistent with the expectations of neo-Marxist conceptualizations of class--the property boundary is the least permeable, followed by the expertise boundary, and then the authority boundary; (3) in the two Scandinavian countries, especially in Sweden, the property and expertise boundaries do not differ significantly in their degree of permeability; (4) the class boundary between workers and capitalists is less permeable than would be predicted from a strictly additive model of the permeability of the three dimensions of the class structure (property + authority + expertise); and (5) in the United States and Canada, the patterns of class boundary permeability to mobility are similar to the patterns of permeability to friendship and cross-class marriages, while mobility patterns in Norway and Sweden differ from friendship and marriage patterns.
The Question of Caste in Modern Society: Durkheim's Contradictory Theories of Race, Class, and Sex [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 23-12-2002Jennifer M. Lehmann American Sociological Review. 2002. Vol. 60. No. 4. P. 566-585.
I explore a set of contradictions crucial to Durkheim's work, that revolve around the issue of whether modern society (i.e., industrial capitalism) is structured according to the principle of individual mobility or the principle of caste. Specifically, I analyze Durkheim's theories of race, class, and sex to determine if they describe modern society in terms of individuals or in terms of castes. I find that Durkheim has both a dominant and a subordinate theory for each category. I also find that his theories of race and class differ significantly from his theories of sex. Durkheim's dominant theories of race and class and his subordinate theory of sex are theories of individuals in modern society. Conversely, his dominant theory of sex and his subordinate theories of race and class are theories of castes in modern society. I view Durkheim's social theory as a quintessential construction of modernity, and I view Durkheim as a quintessential liberal "of sorts." I conclude that the contradictions at the heart of Durkheim's social theory are contradictions at the heart of modern society--and at the heart of liberal ideology.
The Relative Permeability of Class Boundaries to Cross-Class Friendships: A Comparative Study of the United States, Canada, Sweden, and Norway [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 23-12-2002Erik Olin Wright, Donmoon Cho American Sociological Review. 1992. Vol. 57. No. 1. P. 85-102.
The structural analysis of classes can be divided into the analysis of class locations and the analysis of permeability of boundaries separating those locations. Marxist analysis of class structure has been primarily concerned with the first of these while Weberian class analysis has focused on the second. We attempt to combine a Marxist structural class concept, which views class locations in capitalist societies as structured by exploitation based on property relations, authority relations and expertise, with the Weberian concern with the ways lives of individuals traverse the boundaries of that structure. We examine patterns of friendship ties across class boundaries in four contemporary capitalist societies: the United States, Canada, Sweden, and Norway. Three empirical conclusions stand out: (1) The property-based class boundary is the least permeable of the three exploitation dimensions; (2) the authority-based class boundary is significantly more permeable than the expertise-based boundary; and (3) patterns of inter-class friendships are largely invariant across these four countries.
The Sources and Consequences of Embeddedness for the Economic Performance of Organizations: The Network Effect [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 22-07-2003Brian Uzzi American Sociological Review. 1996. Vol. 61. No. 4. P. 647-698.
The Structure of Disadvantage: Individual and Occupational Determinants of the Black-White Wage Gap [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 22-05-2004Eric Grodsky, Devah Pager American Sociological Review. 2001. Vol. 66. No. 4. P. 542-567.
This study is motivated by the idea that the racial gap in earnings is generated not only by individual differences but also by systematic variation in the occupational structure that attenuates or exacerbates the effects of race. Using data from the 1990 census and the Dictionary of Occupational Titles, a hierarchical linear modeling approach is employed that allows the simultaneous exploration of the mechanisms of income inequality operating both within and between occupations. Among private-sector employees, striking evidence shows that racial disparities increase in both absolute and percentage terms as one moves up the occupational earnings hierarchy. The association between average occupational earnings and within-occupation racial disadvantage reveals an overlooked source of racial earnings inequality which constrains the opportunities available to upwardly mobile black men in the private sector. This association cannot be explained by measured individual characteristics, or by the status, demographic composition, or skill demands of occupations. In the public sector, on the other hand, racial inequality in earnings is not systematically associated with average occupational earnings, and is instead more closely tied to individual human capital and occupational placement. The implications of these results are considered and directions for future research are suggested.
The structure of founding teams: Homophily, strong ties, and isolation among U.S. entrepreneurs [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 17-09-2003Martin Ruef, Howard E. Aldrich, Nancy M. Carter American Sociological Review. 2003. Vol. 68. No. 2. P. 195-222.
The mechanisms governing the composition of formal social groups (e.g., task groups, organizational founding teams) remain poorly understood, owing to (1) a lack of representative sampling from groups found in the general population, (2) a "success" bias among researchers that leads them to consider only those groups that actually emerge and survive, and (3) a restrictive focus on some theorized mechanisms of group composition (e.g., homophily) to the exclusion of others. These shortcomings are addressed by analyzing a unique, representative data set of organizational founding teams sampled from the U.S. population. Rather than simply considering the properties of those founding teams that are empirically observed, a novel quantitative methodology generates the distribution of all possible teams, based on combinations of individual and relational characteristics. This methodology permits the exploration of five mechanisms of group composition-those based on homophily, functionality, status expectations, network constraint, and ecological constraint. Findings suggest that homophily and network constraints based on strong ties have the most pronounced effect on group composition. Social isolation (i.e., exclusion from a group) is more likely to occur as a result of ecological constraints on the availability of similar alters in a locality than as a result of status varying membership choices.
Опубликовано на портале: 22-05-2004Alejandro Portes, William J. Haller, Luis Eduardo Guarnizo American Sociological Review. 2002. Vol. 67. No. 2. P. 278-298.
The recent literature on immigrant transnationalism points to an alternative form of economic adaptation of foreign minorities in advanced societies that is based on the mobilization of their cross-country social networks. Case studies have noted the phenomenon's potential significance for immigrant integration into receiving countries and for the economic development in countries of origin. Despite their suggestive character, these studies consistently sample on the dependent variable (transnationalism), failing to establish the empirical existence of these activities beyond a few descriptive examples and their possible determinants. These issues are addressed using a survey designed explicitly for this purpose and conducted among selected Latin immigrant groups in the United States. Although immigrant transnationalism has received little attention in the mainstream sociological literature so far, it has the potential of altering the character of the new ethnic communities spawned by contemporary immigration. The empirical existence of transnationalism is examined on the basis of discriminant functions of migrant characteristics, and the relative probabilities of engaging in these kinds of activities is established based on hypotheses drawn from the literature. Implications for the sociology of immigration as well as for broader sociological theories of the economy are discussed. Reprinted by permission of the publisher.
Опубликовано на портале: 23-12-2002Raymond Sin-Kwok Wong American Sociological Review. 1992. Vol. 57. No. 3. P. 396-410.
Class theorists often argue against the use of unidimensional or hierarchical analyses in class mobility research. They assert that nonvertical effects are of paramount importance in understanding the structure and process of stratification. By explicitly incorporating both vertical and nonvertical effects into the structural model of class mobility, I demonstrate the importance of both effects for understanding the structure of mobility chances within and between countries. Although vertical and nonvertical effects are equally important in explaining association patterns in individual countries, nonvertical effects are the major source of cross-national variation. Two nonvertical effects are particularly important: economic sector of employment--whether nonmanual, manual, or farm; and employment status--whether self-employed or not.
Опубликовано на портале: 17-09-2003Charles N. Halaby American Sociological Review. 2003. Vol. 68. No. 2. P. 251-278.
This paper develops a framework for conceptualizing preferences for different job properties in terms of a tradeoff between risk and return in the pursuit of economic welfare. Following portfolio theory, job properties are viewed as having mean-variance properties with respect to the distribution of rates of growth in economic welfare. Actors may pursue a high-return, high-risk "entrepreneurial" strategy, or a low-return, low-risk "bureaucratic" strategy. An actor's choice is determined by "entrepreneurial ability" and risk preferences, which in turn are rooted in the major dimensions of family and schooling background, cognitive ability, and gender. This theory is tested by anchoring it in the Wisconsin status attainment model and then fitting rank-ordered logit models to data from the 1957 and 1992 Wisconsin Longitudinal Survey. The findings support the theory: Actors who are "advantaged" with respect to family background, schooling, cognitive ability, and gender express a preference for "entrepreneurial" as opposed to "bureaucratic" job properties. Findings also highlight the strong parallels between the process generating adult job values and the process of socioeconomic achievement itself.
Опубликовано на портале: 17-09-2003Steven P. Vallas American Sociological Review. 2003. Vol. 68. No. 2. P. 223-250.
Using data from a comparative, multisite ethnography, this paper identifies some of the social and organizational conditions that limited the impact of workplace transformation at four manufacturing plants during the 1990s. Although these plants adopted an array of new work practices, most achieved only limited gains and were generally unable to transcend the traditional boundary between salaried and hourly employees. A key reason lay in the managerial orientation toward production that was brought to bear on the process of workplace change. This orientation, which placed substantial emphasis on scientific and technical rationality, limited the firm's ability to provide an overarching normative or moral framework within which workplace change might unfold, leaving team systems vulnerable to anomic tendencies, to status distinctions among hourly employees, and to other sources of instability. The predominance of a technical, expert-centered orientation toward production also introduced salient contradictions into the new work regimes, pitting a logic of standardization against managerial efforts to cultivate a logic of participation. These findings suggest that successful implementation of workplace change may depend on the ability of corporate executives to demonstrate the very capacity for flexibility that they often demand of their hourly employees.