American Sociological Review
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Опубликовано на портале: 23-12-2002Seymour Martin Lipset American Sociological Review. 1959. Vol. 24. No. 4. P. 482-501.
A variety of evidence from many countries suggests that low status and low education predispose individuals to favor extremist, intolerant, and transvaluational forms of political and religious behavior. The evidence includes reports from surveys concerning differential attitudes among the various strata towards democratic values, including civil liberties for unpopular political groups, civil rights for ethnic minorities, legitimacy of opposition, and proper limits on the power of national political leaders; psychological research on the personality traits of different strata; data on the composition and appeal of chiliastic religious sects; and materials bearing on the support of authoritarian movements. The factors operating to support this predisposition are all those which make for a lack of "sophistication," a complex view of causal relations, and heightened insecurity, both objective and subjective. These findings suggest that the success of the Communist Party among those of low status in poorer nations is positively related to its authoritarian character.
Опубликовано на портале: 23-12-2002Melvin L. Kohn American Sociological Review. 1959. Vol. 24. No. 3. P. 352-366.
The conditions under which middle- and working-class parents punish their pre-adolescent children physically, or refrain from doing so, appear to be quite different. Working-class parents are more likely to respond in terms of the immediate consequences of the child's actions, middle-class parents in terms of their interpretation of the child's intent in acting as he does. This reflects differences in parents' values: Working-class parents value for their children qualities that assure respectability; desirable behavior consists essentially of not violating proscriptions. Middle-class parents value the child's development of internalized standards of conduct; desirable behavior consists essentially of acting according to the dictates of one's own principles. The first necessarily focuses on the act itself, the second on the actor's intent.
Опубликовано на портале: 23-12-2002Dennis H. Wrong American Sociological Review. 1959. Vol. 24. No. 6. P. 772-782.
The functional theory of stratification advanced by Davis and Moore attempts to explain the universality and the necessity of inequality in societies with a complex division of labor, a task that is independent of efforts to explain the division of labor itself or the intergenerational perpetuation of inequalities along family lines. The theory is so general, however, that it excludes none of the Utopian models of "classless societies" proposed by Western thinkers and, its critics to the contrary notwithstanding, says nothing whatsoever about the range of inequality and the determinants of the range in concrete societies. The theory appears to understate the degree to which positions are inherited by failing to view societies in long-range historical perspective. In common with the arguments of its critics, it also ignores the possible disruptive consequences of mobility and equality of opportunity, a theme notably neglected by American sociologists.