American Sociological Review
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And Then There Were More? The Effect of Organizational Sex Composition on the Hiring and Promotion of Managers [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 22-05-2004Lisa E. Cohen, Joseph P. Broschak, Heather A. Haveman American Sociological Review. 1998. Vol. 63. No. 5. P. 711-727.
We study how organizational sex composition influences the intraorganizational mobility of male and female managers. We test hypotheses linking organizational sex composition to hiring and promotion using longitudinal data on all managers in the California savings and loan industry. We find that the impact of sex composition depends on hierarchical level: Not only does it matter what relative proportions of men and women are working in organizations, but it also matters at what levels in the managerial hierarchies they are working. Our findings demonstrate a catch-22 situation: Women are more likely to be hired and promoted into a particular job level when a higher proportion of women are already there. The question remains, how can women gain entry into these positions? We also find that women are more likely to be hired and promoted when there is a substantial minority of women above the focal job level, but not when women constitute the majority in those higher-level positions: Hence women in high ranks can sometimes be a force for demographic change. Finally, we find evidence that women are more likely to be hired and promoted when higher proportions of women hold positions below the focal job level, indicating that gains made by women are not entirely dissipated by endogenous organizational processes.
Gender, the Welfare State, and Public Employment: A Comparative Study of Seven Industrialized Countries [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 22-05-2004Janet C. Gornick, Jerry A. Jacobs American Sociological Review. 1998. Vol. 63. No. 5. P. 688-710.
Using data from the Luxembourg Income Study (LIS), we explore the influence of government employment on the gender gap in earnings in seven countries. We address four questions on the effects of public-sector employment on the gender gap in earnings: (1) Do governments offer jobs that are comparatively high paying? (2) Does public employment benefit some workers, such as low-paid workers, more than others? (3) Are public-sector employment advantages explained by differences in worker characteristics and the occupational mix? (4) What is the effect of public employment-its extent and its pay structure-on gender gaps in wages? Our results indicate marked variation across liberal, conservative, and social democratic welfare states, but reveal a number of uniformities as well. In most of the seven countries in our sample, public-sector workers earn more on average than do workers in the private sector, and most earnings advantages are concentrated on the low end of the earnings distribution. The effect of public employment on the overall gender gap in wages is limited in most countries. We discuss the implications of these results for theory and research on gender and the welfare state.
Glass Ceiling Effect or Cohort Effect? A Longitudinal Study of the Gender Earnings Gap for Engineers, 1982 to 1989 [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 22-07-2003Laurie A. Morgan American Sociological Review. 1998. Vol. 63. No. 4. P. 479-493.
Hazards of the Market: The Continuity and Dissolution of Interorganizational Market Relationships [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 22-05-2004Wayne E. Baker, Robert R. Faulkner, Gene A. Fisher American Sociological Review. 1998. Vol. 63. No. 2. P. 147-176.
We propose a theory of the market as an "intertemporal" process that integrates multiple theoretical perspectives. Using event-history methods, we analyze the dissolution of interorganizational market ties between advertising agencies and their clients as a function of three forces-competition, power, and institutional forces. The informal "rules of exchange" institutionalized in the "emergence" phase of the advertising services market include exclusivity (sole-source) and loyalty (infrequent switching). We find that most exchange relationships between advertising agencies and their clients are indeed exclusive, and most last for several years; but competition, power, and institutional forces support or undermine these rules. Most institutional forces reduce the risk of dissolution of agency-client ties. Powerful advertising agencies mobilize resources to increase tie stability, but powerful clients mobilize resources to increase or decrease stability. Competition is the weakest market force, but it has a consistent and substantial effect on tie dissolution: Competition always increases the risk of dissolution. We conclude that the market is institutionalized as imperfectly repeated patterns of exchange, because competition and changing norms about the duration of market ties destabilize market relationships.
Socially Embedded Consumer Transactions: For What Kinds of Purchases Do People Most Often Use Networks? [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 22-05-2004Hugh Louch, Paul DiMaggio American Sociological Review. 1998. Vol. 63. No. 5. P. 619-937.
Why and to what extent do people make significant purchases from people with whom they have prior noncommercial relationships? Using data from the economic sociology module of the 1996 General Social Survey, we document high levels of within-network exchanges. We argue that transacting with social contacts is effective because it embeds commercial exchanges in a web of obligations and holds the seller's network hostage to appropriate role performance in the economic transaction. It follows that within-network exchanges will be more common in risky transactions that are unlikely to be repeated and in which uncertainty is high. The data support this view. Self-reports about major purchases are consistent with the expectation that exchange frequency reduces the extent of within-network exchanges. Responses to questions about preferences for in-group exchanges support the argument that uncertainty about product and performance quality leads people to prefer sellers with whom they have noncommercial ties. Moreover, people prefer to avoid selling to social contacts under the same conditions that lead buyers to seek such transactions; and people who transact with friends and relatives report greater satisfaction with the results than do people who transact with strangers, especially for risk-laden exchanges.
Опубликовано на портале: 22-05-2004Jacqueline M. Hagan American Sociological Review. 1998. Vol. 63. No. 1. P. 55-67.
Most research on social networks and immigrant incorporation focuses on the short-term and positive functions of networks, neglecting changes in networks over time. Author present a dynamic and variable portrayal of networks to demonstrate how they gradually assume different forms and functions for women and for men that differentially affect settlement outcomes, particularly opportunities to become legal. The gendered social relations of neighborhood, work, and voluntary associations interact to produce this outcome. The conclusions suggest that social networks can both strengthen and weaken over time, can change differentially for different segments of the immigrant community, and therefore can have disparate effects on incorporation.
Strong Legacies and Weak Markets: Bulgarian State-Owned Enterprises during Early Transition [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 19-05-2004Kenneth I. Spenner, Olga O. Suhomlinova, Sten A. Thore American Sociological Review. 1998. Vol. 63. No. 4. P. 599-617.
We examine the factors affecting the performance of state-owned enterprises (SOEs) during early transition to a market economy. Data come from a longitudinal study of a representative sample of Bulgarian SOEs for the period from 1989 (the last year under communism) to 1993 (three years after major macroeconomic shifts). We investigate how changes in authority structure, work organization, technology, marketing strategy, and organizational boundaries during these years affected organizational performance in 1993. We also assess the degree of path dependence in performance and the role of competitive industry conditions. Numerous organizational changes made by SOEs during early transition had little effect on performance. Yet organizational performance from 1989 to 1993 was highly path-dependent, although this dependence was mediated by the competitive conditions: Stronger markets displayed less path dependence. Overall the results favor the interpretations derived from selected neo-institutional and ecological perspectives of organizational sociology over neoclassical economic interpretations.
Temporal Differentiation in the Occupational Mobility of Immigrant and Native-Born Latina Workers [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 22-05-2004Dowell Myers, Cynthia J. Cranford American Sociological Review. 1998. Vol. 63. No. 1. P. 68-93.
We estimate changes over time in the occupational participation of Latina workers. Applying a "double cohort" method for longitudinal analysis with census data, we clarify the effects of economic restructuring and economic assimilation. We investigate multiple temporal effects: immigration cohort, birth cohort, age at migration, duration in the United States, and advancing age. The analysis compares Latinas in southern California who are employed in low-wage factory jobs with Latinas employed in better-paying office jobs. Results indicate sharp temporal differentiation among the Latina workers, even after controlling for human capital. The newest arrivals concentrate in the growing light-manufacturing sector and remain there, to a relative degree, across subsequent decades. Workers who immigrated as young children (referred to as the 1.5 generation) diverge from their parents and tend to be employed in office jobs--a pattern similar to young native-born Latinas. Within cohorts' careers, workers shift out of factory jobs, but there is little net shift into office work. Instead, cohort succession is the dominant factor in workers' adaptation to a changing economic structure. Reprinted by permission of the publisher.
The Paradox of Redistribution and Strategies of Equality: Welfare State Institutions, Inequality, and Poverty in the Western Countries [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 22-05-2004Walter Korpi, Joakim Palme American Sociological Review. 1998. Vol. 63. No. 5. P. 661-687.
Debates on how to reduce poverty and inequality have focused on two controversial questions: Should social policies be targeted to low-income groups or be universal? Should benefits be equal for all or earnings-related? Traditional arguments in favor of targeting and flat-rate benefits, focusing on the distribution of the money actually transferred, neglect three policy-relevant considerations: (1) The size of redistributive budgets is not fixed but reflects the structure of welfare state institutions. (2) A trade-off exists between the degree of low-income targeting and the size of redistributive budgets. (3) Outcomes of market-based distribution are often more unequal than those of earnings-related social insurance programs. We argue that social insurance institutions are of central importance for redistributive outcomes. Using new data, our comparative analyses of the effects of different institutional types of welfare states on poverty and inequality indicate that institutional differences lead to unexpected outcomes and generate the paradox of redistribution: The more we target benefits at the poor and the more concerned we are with creating equality via equal public transfers to all, the less likely we are to reduce poverty and inequality.