Enterprise and Society
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Carole Turbin Enterprise and Society. 2000. Vol. 1. No. 3. P. 507-535.
Detachable collars, essential to men's appearance from the 1840s to the 1920s, have left a lasting legacy: the term 'white collar' and the "Arrow Man," the centerpiece of Arrow collar advertisements from 1907 until 1931. The Arrow Man was the visual representation of the "New Man," and Arrow collars were preserved in American culture through the lyrics of a 1934 Cole Porter song, "You're the Top." Both the Arrow collar and the Arrow Man derived from business decisions that reflected emerging and changing American consumer tastes and markets, an expanding middle class, and shifts in culture, especially in new ideal images of manliness that were less class-based, contributing to Americans' impression that social distinctions were more blurred than in the past. The Arrow Man embodied in a single compelling image the resolution of social contradictions that persisted beneath the increased similarity of men of different backgrounds.
Gender differences in labor turnover and the development of internal labor markets in the United States during the 1920s [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Laura J. Owen Enterprise and Society. 2001. Vol. 2. No. 1. P. 41-71.
Exploring the relationship between gender differences in labor turnover - which have been linked to male-female differentials - and the early Twentieth-century development of internal labor markets, this case study suggests that observed gender differences in labor turnover in the twentieth-century can be attributed, at least in part, to the specific employment policy decisions of firms. These policies, and the internal labor markets they helped create, directly addressed some of the causes of male turnover but did little to confront the sources of female turnover. The results of this analysis call into question the assumption that the higher rate of female turnover is exogenously determined.
"Carry your credit in your pocket": The early history of the credit card at Bank of America and Chase Manhattan [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Timothy Wolters Enterprise and Society. 2000. Vol. 1. No. 2. P. 315-354.
Drawing from newly available archival material, this article explores the early history of one of today's most ubiquitous financial instruments, the bank credit card. It focuses on the managerial decisions that led to the implementation and development of charge card programs at the 2 largest American banks of the late 1950s and early 1960s. Even though the initial performance of the 2 programs was comparable, top management at each bank ultimately adopted different business strategies. The differences resulted from managers' contrasting interpretations of the appropriate market for the credit card, interpretations formed within the context of 2 distinct banking cultures.
Standard bearers: Material culture and middle-class communities at the turn of the Twentieth century [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Marina Moskowitz Enterprise and Society. 2000. Vol. 1. No. 4. P. 693-698.
American businesses played as pivotal a role in setting the American standard of living as they did in encouraging the dream. The standard of living became increasingly defined as a set of goods and the establishment and maintenance of spaces to house these goods. In 4 case studies, the means by which objects were both physically transported and culturally represented as desirable are discussed. The four topics are silverplate flatware, bathroom fixtures, mass-produced foursquare dwellings, and early zoning plans. The broad distribution of goods and design ideals at the turn of the 20th century can be considered the nationalization of material culture.