Journal of Socio-Economics
Economic man vs. heterodox men: The concepts of human nature in schools of economic thought [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002John F. Tomer Journal of Socio-Economics. 2001. Vol. 30. No. 4. P. 281-293.
Economic man, the man who acts on pure economic motives alone, is the concept of man at the heart of mainstream economics. Heterodox economists, while acknowledging that economic man has served usefully for some purposes, know in different ways that economic man is, because it leaves out too much of human nature, a deficient concept of man. They are uncomfortable at best with the idea of characterizing humans in such a reductionist way. This paper proposes to use the comprehensive view of human nature developed by Ken Wilber to point to the specific deficiencies of economic man. With Wilber's model of human development as the backdrop, it is possible to map the different schools of thought with respect to each other, showing how each of their overlapping conceptions of man include some important elements missing in economic man but fail to include other elements.
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Bernd Schilcher Journal of Socio-Economics. 1999. Vol. 28. No. 4. P. 429-438.
There has always been a rather strong contrast between liberal and communitarian views. The liberal doctrine of irreversible plurality of philosophical and moral ideas for instance does not only mean that consensus about social values is difficult. A public consensus about the necessary conception of the good cannot be obtained, says Rawls. On the other hand, communitarians such as MacIntyre, Sandel, and Walzer, are deeply convinced by the idea of an immanent telos of societies, which in their opinion have the utmost influence on the development of individuals. A similar strong contrast exists between the liberal universalism of values and the communitarian particularism. Etzioni's New Theory now tries to overcome these unsatisfactory tyrannies of dualism.
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Peter C. Kostant Journal of Socio-Economics. 1999. Vol. 28. No. 3. P. 203-246.
Striking changes in the norms and practices of corporate governance have occurred since the 1980s. Corporate directors have become more independent and diligent and institutional investors have become more activist. If one applies Albert Hirschman's insights about the interactions of exit, voice and loyalty, it is found that over-reliance on exit as the remedy of choice of shareholders and educate managers effectively. After the wave of hostile takeovers, the extent of management failure became apparent and the increased power of voice was an important factor in accelerating changes in conduct and norms. The new Team Production Model is useful in describing how public corporations are increasingly being governed. The model helps to explain why corporate boards should function as independent arbitrators among the corporate constituents that have invested in the entity. Mechanisms to increase stakeholder voice and loyalty can help the board function effectively and may increase both efficiency and fairness. The role of corporate msel, as co-agent with corporate management, and having an independent fiduciary duty to the entity and not its management, is essential to assist the corporate board in meeting its obligations within the Team Production Model. Lawyers, as honest brokers with duties to the enterprise, can an important role in increasing stakeholder voice and loyalty.
Опубликовано на портале: 24-05-2004Richard J. Boden Journal of Socio-Economics. 1999. Vol. 28. No. 3. P. 351-364.
Female self-employment has risen strongly over the last few decades and has become an important labor market development. The few studies that have examined women's decision to become self-employed indicate that this decision is complex. Women are more likely than men to shoulder family-related obligations, especially child rearing, and there is evidence that this affects some women's propensity to become self-employed. Also, women have yet to achieve full economic parity with men in wage employment. How gender inequality in wage earnings may precipitate some women's selection out of wage employment and into self-employment is examined. It is found that women's lower wage returns to observed worker characteristics have a positive and significant effect on women's decision to switch from wage employment to self-employment.
Institutional determinants of savings: Implications for low-income households and public policy [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Sondra G. Beverly, Michael Sherraden Journal of Socio-Economics. 1999. Vol. 28. No. 4. P. 457-473.
There is an emerging policy and academic discussion, supported by a growing body of empirical evidence, regarding the potentially positive effects of asset accumulation in low-income households. However, at least two questions precede this discussion: Can the poor save? And, if so, how can programs and policies promote saving by the poor? These questions are addressed by examining the effects of institutional variables on saving behavior. It is posited that four institutional variables-institutionalized saving mechanisms, targeted financial education, attractive saving incentives, and facilitation-promote saving. However, low-income households are substantially less likely to have access to these institutions, a phenomenon that may help explain their below-average saving rates. This discussion has implications, especially as policy-makers consider various proposals to increase the saving rates of low- and middle-income Americans.
Is the good corporation dead? The community social responsibility of small business operators [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Terry L. Besser, Nancy J. Miller Journal of Socio-Economics. 2001. Vol. 30. No. 3. P. 221-241.
This study examined whether social responsibility is a meaningful characteristic with which to differentiate businesses given its supposed demise in the new global economy. The analysis focuses on small businesses and the social responsibility of businesses toward their community. Community social responsibility and competitive strategies were measured by the self reports of 675 small business operators in 10 Iowa cities. Cluster analysis revealed 4 categories of business operators designated as: 1. civic leaders, 2. alienated business operators, 3. followers in high collective action communities, and 4. followers in low collective action communities. Business owners and managers can be differentiated on the basis of community social responsibility. In spite of changes in the economy, a significant segment of small business operators believe in tenets of the enlightened self interest model of business social responsibility, that is, that doing good is good business.
Rational actors or rational fools: implications of the affect heuristic for behavioral economics [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Paul Slovic, Melissa Finucane, Ellen Peters Journal of Socio-Economics. 2002. Vol. 31. No. 4. P. 329-342.
This paper describes two fundamental modes of thinking. The experiential mode, is intuitive, automatic, natural, and based upon images to which positive and negative affective feelings have been attached through learning and experience. The other mode is analytic, deliberative, and reason based. I describe recent empirical research illuminating "the affect heuristic" wherein people rapidly consult their affective feelings, when making judgments and decisions. This heuristic enables us to be rational actors in many situations. It works beautifully when experience enables us to anticipate accurately how we will like or dislike the consequences of our decisions. However, it fails miserably when the consequences turn out to be much different than we anticipated. In the latter circumstances, the rational actor may well become the rational fool.
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Erich Kirchler Journal of Socio-Economics. 1999. Vol. 28. No. 2. P. 131-138.
Taxes limit an individual's freedom to make autonomous decisions about his income. A person is likely to respond to restrictions on his own freedom or perceived restrictions by reactance if opposition is a promising means for reestablishing the initial situation. Reactance as a consequence of perceived limitation of freedom is likely to manifest itself through change of attitudes, tax morale, and tax behavior. It is hypothesized that employers who have been running their business only a short time perceive taxes as a drastic cut in their profit and possibilities for investments and tend to feel limited their freedom and consequently display reactance more than employers who have had more extensive experience with their firms and the tax system. A sample of 117 employers with one or more dependent workers completed a questionnaire on: 1. perceived limitation of one's freedom through tax obligations, 2. attitudes towards tax evasion, 3. moral standards with regard to paying taxes, 4. actions to reduce or avoid taxes, and 5. demographic characteristics.
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Lindon J. Robison, Marcelo E. Siles Journal of Socio-Economics. 1999. Vol. 28. No. 1. P. 43-93.
It is asked if change in social capital influences the level and disparity of household income in the US. Social capital is defined as one's sympathy (antipathy) for others and one's idealized self. The relationship between changes in social capital indicator variables and changes in the average and coefficient of variation of household income were tested. State CVs and averages of household income were calculated for all 50 states and for different races/ethnic groups using the US Census data for 1980 and 1990. Social capital indicator variables selected to measure changes in social capital included measures of family integrity including the percentages of households headed by a single female with children, educational achievement variables including high school graduation rates, crime rate variables including litigation rates, and labor force participation rates. The social capital indicator variables appeared to be significantly correlated with each other. However, in 1980, the percentages of households headed by a single female with children was not significantly related to the birth rates of single teens. By 1990, however, a strong correlation was found between the percentages of households headed by a single female with children and the birth rate of single teens.
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Stephen L. Morgan Journal of Socio-Economics. 2000. Vol. 29. No. 6. P. 591-595.
The concept of social capital, according to James Coleman (1990), blurs distinctions between types of social structures. Most researchers who embrace Coleman's concept choose to preserve its broad content rather than sharpen its analytic bite. In order to further develop social capital as a theory capable of explanation, the analytic contribution of the concept of capital must be clarified. In this paper, some structure is imposed on the broad concept of social capital by driving a conceptual wedge between norms and networks and then elevating information to the same (secondary) status as norms. The attempt is made to build a theory by invoking a distinction between social capital resources and capital goods.
Social networks and self-employment [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002David Allen Journal of Socio-Economics. 2000. Vol. 29. No. 5. P. 487-501.
This article applies social network concepts, developed in sociology, to the analysis of the self-employment decision. Theory suggests that if one's social network provides social support so as to reduce the costs of self-employment, those with more effective social networks may possess a greater incentive to attempt self-employment, ceteris paribus. Empirical investigation of this hypothesis is conducted using a unique new data set, the Wisconsin Entrepreneurial Climate Study, which allows analysis of self-employment, in a social context. Results illustrate that the individual self-employment choice is highly influenced by the size and composition of the social network and that women receive less influential social support for entrepreneurial activity than men receive, a finding that may provide an explanation for gender differences in self-employment likelihood.
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Ross Zucker Journal of Socio-Economics. 1999. Vol. 28. No. 5. P. 555-576.
Viewing labor and capital as utterly distinct and competitive categories of economic actors, modern or neoclassical economics denies the existence of community in the economy. This study scrutinizes the elementary relations of economic life, finding a dimension of community, rather than a total absence or thorough going manifestation of it. Whereas neoclassical theorists ascribe alternative and independent ends to labor and capital, their goals also exhibit some profound commonalities. Contemporary communitarians also discern some community in the economy yet tend to identify it in subsystems, such as the firm. Analysis suggests a broader dimension of community on a system-wide scale.
The common will [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Mihnea Moldoveanu Journal of Socio-Economics. 1999. Vol. 28. No. 5. P. 541-554.
This paper discusses the formation of a common will among a group of people from two separate points of view: that of social choice theory and that of discourse ethics. The paper evaluates the formation of a common will be silent mechanisms for aggregating individual wishes and preferences, traditionally the domain of social choice theory, from a procedural perspective. It is concluded that, although neither approach to the formation of a common will fares well by the standards normally used to justify the other, proponents of either approach have much to learn from a dialogue with proponents of the other.
The Concept 'Merit Good': The Ethical Dimension in Economic Theory and the History of Economic Thought or the Transformation of Economics into Socio-Economics (French) [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 28-10-2007Wilfried Ver Eecke Journal of Socio-Economics. 2007. No. 27(1). P. 133-53.
In this paper, the author points out that economists feel epistemologically obliged to introduce a concept in their science that demonstrates the unavoidability of ethical considerations in economic theory. It is the concept of "merit good." The concept of merit good refers to economic activities in which the state disregards the preferences of consumers (obligatory education, prohibition of smoking). Such activities cannot be justified by the "value-free" principle of "Pareto-efficiency," according to which changes in the economy are unambiguously better if some people are better off and nobody is worse off. The author objects to attempts by economists to reduce the concept of merit good to that of public good, which is conceptualized as obeying the Pareto-principle. Instead, he demonstrate with the help of the history of economic thought (e.g., Adam Smith, Henry Simons), that for the economy to work, to work efficiently, and to work justly a series of institutional arrangements must be imposed. These institutional arrangements fit, in his opinion, the definition of merit good, because they are imposed against the self-interests of some and intend to do so. However, giving the state the right to impose institutional arrangements on the economy, unavoidably raises ethical questions. With Kantian arguments the author demonstrates, first, the instrumental necessity of some institutional arrangements (e.g., property rights) and then end with pointing to the categorical necessity of other institutional arrangements (some forms of public education and some measures of the social welfare state).
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Jouce P. Jacobsen, Laurence M. Levin Journal of Socio-Economics. 2000. Vol. 29. No. 3. P. 291-304.
This article examines recent internal migration patterns for the United States workforce and contrasts household earnings outcomes for movers and nonmovers by sex and marital status. Three aspects of how migration affects the relative economic status of women and men are considered: 1) the importance of relative economic opportunities for husband and wife for the decision as to whether or not to move; 2) actual economic outcomes for movers relative to nonmovers; and 3) the effect of moving on relative earnings within married-couple households. It is found that the decision to move is consistent with a common preference model of household decision-making and that the recently available range of opportunities to migrate has had little effect on the earnings composition of married-couple and single male households, but has benefited single women.