Journal of Socio-Economics
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Milan Zafirovski, Barry B. Levine Journal of Socio-Economics. 1999. Vol. 28. No. 3. P. 309-334.
The task is to explore social underpinnings in economic exchanges. This oration is undertaken within the frame of reference of socio-economics that centers on the multifarious social and cultural variables of economic phenomena. In particular, the socio-economic perspective on the market, focusing on the social setting of market exchanges, is utilized. As such, this exploration probes under the surface of (seemingly) cost-benefit induced exchange processes and uncovers a far more complex social structure and dynamics underlying these processes. Hence, these processes are analyzed as constituting socio-economic categories of the market. The social-cultural contingency of economic exchange, especially of its market varieties, is the key hypothesis. This signifies that market exchange, just as production, distribution, and consumption, is a dependent variable on concrete social-historical conditions, rather than being a human universal. The approach proposed here provides an alternative to the purely economic conception, which treats exchange processes as strictly economic variables driven by an intrinsic logic and insulated from other social relations. The mainstream economic literature's lack of consistent applications of such an approach to market exchange contrasts with the richness of such applications in the field of socio-economics. An attempt is made to contribute toward further elaboration and application of socio-economics.
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Gary D. Lynne Journal of Socio-Economics. 1999. Vol. 28. No. 3. P. 267-288.
Microeconomics envisions a single decision-maker in a firm or household who is presumed to experience economic relationships only in markets. This theory is largely silent regarding the moral dimension, i.e., the nature of the invisible hand, and how it unconsciously affects the self acting in said markets. Amitai Etzioni, the founder of socioeconomics, offered the vision of the moral dimension as a component of the self. Metaeconomics operationalizes this vision by making explicit the Strict Father moral dimension in the invisible hand and recognizing interdependence of self when Nurturant Parent morality is operant. It builds upon a tripartite, multiple-self concept, with a mediating adult who balances the pleasures with the moral dimension in finding a satisfactory mix of self - and we-interests. By making this dimension explicit, metaeconomics reintegrates ethics and economics, includes values and community, and proposes the starting point for a common analytical engine for all socioeconomists.
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Herbert Kiesling Journal of Socio-Economics. 1999. Vol. 28. No. 6. P. 653-663.
Economics can be considered the science that deals with marketplace efficiency, or it can be viewed as a social science, which deals with human policy goals considered generally. The view Amartya Sen (1987) takes of the matter is that the broader view is the more correct. There is one large and important group of human goals that the mainstream professional economists systematically omit from their discipline: collective goals, especially other-regarding collective goals. How investigators can isolate lists of social goals that persons consider important is discussed. Using these it should not be difficult for social scientists to proceed to provide analysis, drawing upon all the relevant theoretical and imperical knowledge, and so making predictions for opportunity costs in terms of all the other goals of moving a unit closer to any goal (particularly a goal of central concern).
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Bernd Schilcher Journal of Socio-Economics. 1999. Vol. 28. No. 4. P. 429-438.
There has always been a rather strong contrast between liberal and communitarian views. The liberal doctrine of irreversible plurality of philosophical and moral ideas for instance does not only mean that consensus about social values is difficult. A public consensus about the necessary conception of the good cannot be obtained, says Rawls. On the other hand, communitarians such as MacIntyre, Sandel, and Walzer, are deeply convinced by the idea of an immanent telos of societies, which in their opinion have the utmost influence on the development of individuals. A similar strong contrast exists between the liberal universalism of values and the communitarian particularism. Etzioni's New Theory now tries to overcome these unsatisfactory tyrannies of dualism.
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Peter C. Kostant Journal of Socio-Economics. 1999. Vol. 28. No. 3. P. 203-246.
Striking changes in the norms and practices of corporate governance have occurred since the 1980s. Corporate directors have become more independent and diligent and institutional investors have become more activist. If one applies Albert Hirschman's insights about the interactions of exit, voice and loyalty, it is found that over-reliance on exit as the remedy of choice of shareholders and educate managers effectively. After the wave of hostile takeovers, the extent of management failure became apparent and the increased power of voice was an important factor in accelerating changes in conduct and norms. The new Team Production Model is useful in describing how public corporations are increasingly being governed. The model helps to explain why corporate boards should function as independent arbitrators among the corporate constituents that have invested in the entity. Mechanisms to increase stakeholder voice and loyalty can help the board function effectively and may increase both efficiency and fairness. The role of corporate msel, as co-agent with corporate management, and having an independent fiduciary duty to the entity and not its management, is essential to assist the corporate board in meeting its obligations within the Team Production Model. Lawyers, as honest brokers with duties to the enterprise, can an important role in increasing stakeholder voice and loyalty.
Опубликовано на портале: 24-05-2004Richard J. Boden Journal of Socio-Economics. 1999. Vol. 28. No. 3. P. 351-364.
Female self-employment has risen strongly over the last few decades and has become an important labor market development. The few studies that have examined women's decision to become self-employed indicate that this decision is complex. Women are more likely than men to shoulder family-related obligations, especially child rearing, and there is evidence that this affects some women's propensity to become self-employed. Also, women have yet to achieve full economic parity with men in wage employment. How gender inequality in wage earnings may precipitate some women's selection out of wage employment and into self-employment is examined. It is found that women's lower wage returns to observed worker characteristics have a positive and significant effect on women's decision to switch from wage employment to self-employment.
Institutional determinants of savings: Implications for low-income households and public policy [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Sondra G. Beverly, Michael Sherraden Journal of Socio-Economics. 1999. Vol. 28. No. 4. P. 457-473.
There is an emerging policy and academic discussion, supported by a growing body of empirical evidence, regarding the potentially positive effects of asset accumulation in low-income households. However, at least two questions precede this discussion: Can the poor save? And, if so, how can programs and policies promote saving by the poor? These questions are addressed by examining the effects of institutional variables on saving behavior. It is posited that four institutional variables-institutionalized saving mechanisms, targeted financial education, attractive saving incentives, and facilitation-promote saving. However, low-income households are substantially less likely to have access to these institutions, a phenomenon that may help explain their below-average saving rates. This discussion has implications, especially as policy-makers consider various proposals to increase the saving rates of low- and middle-income Americans.
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Erich Kirchler Journal of Socio-Economics. 1999. Vol. 28. No. 2. P. 131-138.
Taxes limit an individual's freedom to make autonomous decisions about his income. A person is likely to respond to restrictions on his own freedom or perceived restrictions by reactance if opposition is a promising means for reestablishing the initial situation. Reactance as a consequence of perceived limitation of freedom is likely to manifest itself through change of attitudes, tax morale, and tax behavior. It is hypothesized that employers who have been running their business only a short time perceive taxes as a drastic cut in their profit and possibilities for investments and tend to feel limited their freedom and consequently display reactance more than employers who have had more extensive experience with their firms and the tax system. A sample of 117 employers with one or more dependent workers completed a questionnaire on: 1. perceived limitation of one's freedom through tax obligations, 2. attitudes towards tax evasion, 3. moral standards with regard to paying taxes, 4. actions to reduce or avoid taxes, and 5. demographic characteristics.
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Lindon J. Robison, Marcelo E. Siles Journal of Socio-Economics. 1999. Vol. 28. No. 1. P. 43-93.
It is asked if change in social capital influences the level and disparity of household income in the US. Social capital is defined as one's sympathy (antipathy) for others and one's idealized self. The relationship between changes in social capital indicator variables and changes in the average and coefficient of variation of household income were tested. State CVs and averages of household income were calculated for all 50 states and for different races/ethnic groups using the US Census data for 1980 and 1990. Social capital indicator variables selected to measure changes in social capital included measures of family integrity including the percentages of households headed by a single female with children, educational achievement variables including high school graduation rates, crime rate variables including litigation rates, and labor force participation rates. The social capital indicator variables appeared to be significantly correlated with each other. However, in 1980, the percentages of households headed by a single female with children was not significantly related to the birth rates of single teens. By 1990, however, a strong correlation was found between the percentages of households headed by a single female with children and the birth rate of single teens.
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Ross Zucker Journal of Socio-Economics. 1999. Vol. 28. No. 5. P. 555-576.
Viewing labor and capital as utterly distinct and competitive categories of economic actors, modern or neoclassical economics denies the existence of community in the economy. This study scrutinizes the elementary relations of economic life, finding a dimension of community, rather than a total absence or thorough going manifestation of it. Whereas neoclassical theorists ascribe alternative and independent ends to labor and capital, their goals also exhibit some profound commonalities. Contemporary communitarians also discern some community in the economy yet tend to identify it in subsystems, such as the firm. Analysis suggests a broader dimension of community on a system-wide scale.
The common will [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Mihnea Moldoveanu Journal of Socio-Economics. 1999. Vol. 28. No. 5. P. 541-554.
This paper discusses the formation of a common will among a group of people from two separate points of view: that of social choice theory and that of discourse ethics. The paper evaluates the formation of a common will be silent mechanisms for aggregating individual wishes and preferences, traditionally the domain of social choice theory, from a procedural perspective. It is concluded that, although neither approach to the formation of a common will fares well by the standards normally used to justify the other, proponents of either approach have much to learn from a dialogue with proponents of the other.
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Flora Gill Journal of Socio-Economics. 1999. Vol. 28. No. 6. P. 725-743.
Economics views work as merely providing purchasing power. Many economists agree that there is a great deal more to work, but they nonetheless feel comfortable with this narrow description, believing that important aspects of work that they have left out of consideration have no impact on the validity of their analytical conclusions and policy propositions. This paper argues that if economics is to shed light on urgent socio-economic issues and suggest appropriate remedies, labor economics must be expanded to encompass work as a creative endeavor - an escape from social isolation - and to acknowledge the analytical implications of the workplace as a social microcosm, which is, inter alia, governed by power relationships. This paper presents lessons from an investigation of the meaning of work in a number of cognate disciplines and outlines their implication for labor economics and for policy seeking to advance the cause of social justice.
The volunteer's folly and socio-economic man: Some thoughts on altruism, rationality, and community [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Trevor M. Knox Journal of Socio-Economics. 1999. Vol. 28. No. 4. P. 475-492.
Altruistic volunteers are either not truly altruistic or not rational, according to traditional economic analysis. They are not altruistic if they volunteer to receive a utility benefit, and they are not rational if they choose to volunteer when monetary contribution would be more efficient. Economic man is a fool to volunteer. However, socio-economic man is shrewder. Socio-economic man is moderately deontological, path-dependent, nonmonetary, nonrationally motivated, and community-minded. Corresponding elements of socio-economic rationality that allow for rational, altruistic volunteers are considerd. The five elements considered are: 1, nonconsequentialist reasons, 2. constitutive choices, 3. pricelessness, 4. nonrational motivation, and 5. community preference production.
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Elias L. Khalil Journal of Socio-Economics. 1999. Vol. 28. No. 2. P. 157-173.
Two kinds of order are distinguished: the order of the firm and other organizations, such as households and states, and the order of the market and other structures, such as networks and associations. The dichotomy parallels the difference between organisms and ecosystems. While both kinds are spontaneous, i.e., not artificial or designed by an external agency, they differ in one important aspect. While structures express efficient arrangement given the constraining variables, organizations involve political constitutions expressing coherent individuality whose nature is not premised on efficiency considerations. The dichotomy sheds light on the difference between market dynamics and organization development.