Journal of Socio-Economics
Rational actors or rational fools: implications of the affect heuristic for behavioral economics [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Paul Slovic, Melissa Finucane, Ellen Peters Journal of Socio-Economics. 2002. Vol. 31. No. 4. P. 329-342.
This paper describes two fundamental modes of thinking. The experiential mode, is intuitive, automatic, natural, and based upon images to which positive and negative affective feelings have been attached through learning and experience. The other mode is analytic, deliberative, and reason based. I describe recent empirical research illuminating "the affect heuristic" wherein people rapidly consult their affective feelings, when making judgments and decisions. This heuristic enables us to be rational actors in many situations. It works beautifully when experience enables us to anticipate accurately how we will like or dislike the consequences of our decisions. However, it fails miserably when the consequences turn out to be much different than we anticipated. In the latter circumstances, the rational actor may well become the rational fool.
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Harold Wolozin Journal of Socio-Economics. 2002. Vol. 31. No. 1. P. 45-57.
"...Economics is supposed to be concerned with real people. It is hard to believe that real people could be completely unaffected by the reach of the self-examination induced by the Socratic question, `How should one live?'a question that is, also a central motivating one for ethics. Can people whom economics studies really be so unaffected by this resilient question and stick exclusively to the rudimentary hard-headedness attributed to them by modern economics?" Amartya Sen, On Ethics & Economics."...Apart from a few exceptions, the international consensus view within sociology, anthropology, political science and psychology seems to be that agents are not irrational in the way that neoclassical economists presume. The orthodox economic canons of rationality are thus widely rejected elsewhere," Geoffrey M. Hodgson, Economics and Institutions."Once we realize that the human mind is everywhere active and imaginative, then we need to understand the routes of this activity if we are to grasp how the human mind works. This is true whether the mind is trying to come to grips with painful reality, reacting to trauma, coping with the everyday or just making things up. Freud called this imaginative activity phantasy, and he argued both that it functions unconsciously and that it plays a powerful role in the organization of a person's experience. This surely, contains the seeds of a profound insight into the human condition; it is the central insight of psychoanalysis...a pervasive aspect of mental life.... Are we to see humans as having depthas complex psychological organisms who generate layers of meaning which lie beneath the surface of their own understanding? Or are we to take ourselves as transparent to ourselves?" Jonathan Lear, Open Minded: Working Out the Logic of the Soul.