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Всего публикаций в данном разделе: 41


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Опубликовано на портале: 04-01-2004
Peter Tillack, Eberhard Schulze
Boston: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2000, 447-470 с.
The transitional countries have adopted different approaches toward privatizing and restructuring farms. This paper shows that large family farms and agribusinesses may be more efficient than small farms and that the property rights of land and asset owners in Russia and the Ukraine are restricted.

A survey conducted in Novosibirsk province reveals that 78.6 percent of the respondents working in agriculture disapproved of the selling and buying of farmland. Finally, farm and management structures in the transition countries of central and eastern Europe are outlined, and the relative dissimilarity of land distribution is assessed through the use of Gini coefficients
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Опубликовано на портале: 28-11-2003
Sami Daniel, Maureen Kilkenny
This article considers the impacts of (de)coupled farm sector support on the locations of farming and agro-industrial activity. An economic geography model is developed which has two types of regions, one with extensive agricultural production (rural), the other with intensive farming that is more densely populated (urban). The farm and agro-industrial sectors are vertically linked. A service sector that is not directly linked to either basic industry is also explicit. We show that coupled and decoupled subsidies affect the spatial distribution of farming, industry, and service sector activity. Support that is provided to all farmers regardless of crop, thus semi-decoupled, increases spatial agglomeration. Support targeted to farmers of particular crops, especially rural comparative advantage crops, favors increased farming in rural areas but spatial agglomeration of non-farm activity still occurs. This latter targeting approach is used in the European Union.
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Опубликовано на портале: 27-01-2003
David Epstein, Sharyn O'Halloran
Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1999
In this path-breaking book, David Epstein and Sharyn O'Halloran produce the first unified theory of policy making between the legislative and executive branches. Examining major US policy initiatives from 1947 to 1992, the authors describe the conditions under which the legislature narrowly constrains executive discretion, and when it delegates authority to the bureaucracy.
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Опубликовано на портале: 03-01-2004
Ред.: Stanley R. Johnson, Jati K. Sengupta, Erik Thorbecke
USA: Blackwell Publishing Company, 1992, 384 с.
Книга является сборником научных работ, опубликованных в 1950-1960х годах, одного из известных экономистов - Карла Фокса. Основные темы исследования, получившие отражение в данном сборнике – анализ спроса, пространственные модели равновесия, взаимоотношение сельского хозяйства с неаграрной экономикой, эконометрическое моделирование в экономике и экономической политики в США. Под редакцией С.Джонсона, Ж.Сенгупта, Э.Торбеке.
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Опубликовано на портале: 08-10-2004
James M. Buchanan
Chicago: Rand McNally & Company, 1968, 202 с.
The title, "The Demand and Supply of Public Goods," has been selected to emphasize those features that set the book apart from orthodox public finance and at the same time tie it to neoclassical economics. Public finance, traditionally, has neither contained a theory of demand nor one of supply. Public goods and services have not been central to this subdiscipline. Public finance has been rather straightforward applied price theory, and its scientific content has been limited to predictions about the reactions of individuals and firms to fiscal institutions. The scholar from outer space, coming to earth in the post-Marshallian era, might have concluded on perusing the English-language literature that governments exist wholly apart from their citizens, that these units impose taxes on individuals and firms primarily to nourish the state; and he might have thought that positive public finance consists in predicting the effects of these taxes. Normative public finance, observed alongside the positive elements, consists in pronouncements about how taxes should be imposed.

The book is based on materials that I have presented in a second-year graduate seminar at the University of Virginia from 1957 to 1968. These materials have been modified each year, I hope with gradual improvement. They were first written up in manuscript form in the fall of 1961, when eight lectures were delivered at Cambridge University, where I spent the 1961-62 academic year. The version presented here was actually written during the 1964-65 and 1965-66 academic years, and the summer of 1966. Final revisions were made in late 1966 and early 1967.
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Опубликовано на портале: 30-11-2003
Terhi Latvala
The aim of this study is to evaluate both qualitatively and quantitatively the value of new information about and the information systems set for credence characteristics of beef. Economics of information is our theoretical framework. The quantitative approach focuses to measure the ex ante value of credence characteristics, and the method of contingent valuation is applied for this purpose. Results indicate that 59 % of Finnish consumers are willing to pay more to get information about safety and quality of beef products. Consumers are most concerned with diseases caused by food of animal origin. Genetically modified organisms (GMOs) are not considered as the most hazardous risk factor in food products. However, if the beef products contain GMOs used in animals, then consumers also start requiring additional information.
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Опубликовано на портале: 31-12-2003
Richard B. Freeman
Amsterdam: North-Holland, 1987, cерия "Handbooks in Economics", vol. 1
The human capital "revolution" of the 1960s and 1970s turned the previously peripheral topic of demand for education into a major area of research for labor economists. Analysis has focused on a variety of questions relating to the role of education in an economy, individual decision-making with respect to demand for education, and social provision of education. At the societal level, the important questions are: What is the contribution of educated labor to national output? What is the substitutability between educated labor and other inputs in production? To what extent does demand for educated labor change with economic development and growth? And, on the wage side: How responsive are educational wage differentials to market conditions? At the level of individual decision-makers the questions are: How well does the economic model of investment in human capital explain individual demands for education and thus the supply of educated labor? How elastic are the supplies of workers to various educational categories? With respect to earnings, we want to know the fraction of the variance in earnings that can be explained by differences in education. Because of the significant public role in education markets, another important question is: What determines public funding for education?

In this chapter I examine the theoretical and empirical findings from the past two or so decades of work on these issues. The chapter shows, I believe, that we have made considerable progress along the paths developed in the late 1950s and early 1960s by T. W. Schultz, G. Becker and others on the economic analysis of demand for education.1 While there are exceptions, the past two decades' work supports the general proposition that economic analysis of rational behavior under specified market and informational conditions goes a long way to understanding the interplay between education and the economy.

The evidence on which this conclusion is based, and the specific findings on the social, individual, market, and public finance questions of concern, are presented in the remainder of this chapter. I begin with the demand for education by the society as a whole, then turn to individual decision-making and wage determination, and conclude with the issues relating to public funding.
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Опубликовано на портале: 12-12-2003
Bernard Manin, Adam Przeworski, C. Susan Stokes, A. John Ferejohn, A. James Stimson, Jose Antonio Cheibub, Michael Laver, A. Kenneth Shepsle, John Dunn, D. Delmer Dunn
New York: Cambridge University Press, 1999, 361 с.
This book examines whether the mechanisms of accountability characteristic of democratic systems are sufficient to induce the representatives to act in the best interest of the represented. The first part of the volume focuses on the role of elections, distinguishing different ways in which they may cause representation. The second part is devoted to the role of checks and balances, between the government and the parliament as well as between the government and the bureaucracy. The contributors of this volume, all leading scholars in the fields of American and comparative politics and political theory, address questions such as, whether elections induce governments to act in the interest of citizens. Are politicians in democracies accountable to voters in future elections? If so, does accountability induce politicians to represent citizens? Does accountability limit or enhance the scope of action of governments? Are governments that violate campaign mandates representative? Overall, the essays combine theoretical discussions, game-theoretic models, case studies, and statistical analyses, within a shared analytical approach and a standardized terminology. The empirical material is drawn from the well established democracies as well as from new democracies.

Is economic development conducive to political democracy? Does democracy foster or hinder material welfare? These two questions are examined by looking at the experiences of 135 countries between 1950 and 1990. Descriptive information, statistical analyses, and historical narratives are interwoven to gain an understanding of the dynamic of political regimes and their impact on economic development. The often surprising findings dispel any notion of a tradeoff between democracy and development. Economic development does not generate democracies, but democracies are much more likely to survive in wealthy societies.
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Опубликовано на портале: 25-01-2003
Ред.: Charlotte Hohn
Berlin: BiB, 2001
Сборник материалов Первой международной конференции, организованной Немецким национальным институтом демографической статистики и проблем народонаселения Population Research in co-operation with the Network for Integrated European Population Studies (NIEPS), 10-11 November 2000, Bingen, Germany. В сборнике представлены результаты иследования миграционных процессов между европейскими странами (включая исследование трудовой миграции). Авторы из Германии, Польши, Финляндии, Италии, Франции, Великобритании, Норвегии и других европейских стран подробно характеризуют результаты и особенности применения методики Евростата в области исследования миграционных процессов в специфических национальных условиях каждой страны. Научная ценность сборника для российских исследователей (включая преподавателей, заинтересованных в организации самостоятельной работы студентов по указанной тематике) определяется не только актуальностью для РФ миграционных проблем во внутренней и внешней миграции, но и нехваткой как материалов по общеевропейской методике анализа миграционных процессов, так и соответствующих специалистов.

Опубликовано на портале: 23-07-2004
Although there has been a surge of interest in density estimation in recent years, much of the published research has been concerned with purely technical matters with insufficient emphasis given to the technique's practical value. Furthermore, the subject has been rather inaccessible to the general statistician.
The account presented in this book places emphasis on topics of methodological importance, in the hope that this will facilitate broader practical application of density estimation and also encourage research into relevant theoretical work. The book also provides an introduction to the subject for those with general interests in statistics. The important role of density estimation as a graphical technique is reflected by the inclusion of more than 50 graphs and figures throughout the text.
Several contexts in which density estimation can be used are discussed, including the exploration and presentation of data, nonparametric discriminant analysis, cluster analysis, simulation and the bootstrap, bump hunting, projection pursuit, and the estimation of hazard rates and other quantities that depend on the density.
This book includes general survey of methods available for density estimation. The Kernel method, both for univariate and multivariate data, is discussed in detail, with particular emphasis on ways of deciding how much to smooth and on computation aspects.
Attention is also given to adaptive methods, which smooth to a greater degree in the tails of the distribution, and to methods based on the idea of penalized likelihood.
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Опубликовано на портале: 17-09-2003
Determinanten und Indikatoren der Integration und Segregation der ausländischen Bevölkerung (Integrationssurvey) Projekt- und Materialdokumentation ist der Heft 105a die Materialien zur Bevölkerungswissenschaft des Bundesinstituts für Bevölkerungsforschung Die Frage nach den Formen und Bestimmungsfaktoren der Eingliederung der ausländischen Bevölkerung gewinnt mit der dauerhaften Niederlassung der ehemals als "Gastarbeiter" zugewanderten Gruppen und ihrer Nachkommen zunehmend an Bedeutung.
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Опубликовано на портале: 29-11-2003
Narciso Arcas, Jose Luis Munuera
The integration in second-order cooperatives allows the first-order agricultural cooperatives to complement their resources and capabilities, achieving a sustainable competitive advantage. The problems associated with the creation, development and long-term maintenance of these partnerships, along with the lack of research into this area, justify the realization of studies aimed at improving our understanding of the processes and outcomes that characterize them. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to discover the factors which lead to the success of these relationships, empirically measured through the satisfaction of first-order co-operatives with the relationship. In order to achieve this, a suitable theoretical framework is established and an empirical study undertaken, with information obtained from a survey of 190 Spanish first-order agricultural co-operatives. The results obtained reveal that the contribution of the partnership to the first-order cooperative’s performance, its trust and perception of fairness are critical antecedents of the level of satisfaction of the first-order cooperative satisfaction with the relationship.
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Опубликовано на портале: 29-11-2003
Christoph Weiss, Wolfgang Briglauer
This paper examines the impact of various farm and household characteristics (such as farm size, the off-farm employment status, the farm operator's age and schooling and the number of family members) on the level as well as the dynamics of on-farm diversification. Using linked census data for Upper-Austria from 1980, 1985 and 1990 we provide evidence that smaller farms are more specialised and also tend to increase the degree of specialisation over time more quickly than large farms. A significantly lower degree of diversification (higher degree of specialisation) as well as a stronger reduction in diversification over time is also reported for businesses operated by older, less educated, part-time farm operators. The analysis of diversification dynamics also suggests that (a) farms adjust to changes in their environment by steadily approaching their long-run equilibrium level of diversification ( β-convergence), and (b) the variance of the diversification distribution declines over time (σ-convergence).
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Опубликовано на портале: 25-01-2003
Robert J. Barro
Cambridge, Mass: MIT Press, 1998
Nothing matters more to the long-term economic welfare of a nation than its rate of economic growth. Compounded over many years, seemingly small differences in annual growth rates can lead to vast differences in standards of living. Research on economic growth has exploded in the past decade. Hundreds of empirical studies on economic growth across countries have highlighted the correlation between growth and a variety of variables. Determinants of Economic Growth, based on Robert Barro's Lionel Robbins Memorial Lectures, delivered at the London School of Economics in February 1996, summarizes this important literature.
The book contains three essays. The first is a survey of the research on the determinants of long-run growth through the estimation of panels of cross-country data. The second essay details the interplay between growth and political freedom or democracy and finds some evidence of a nonlinear relationship. At low levels of political rights, an expansion of rights stimulates growth; however, once a moderate level of democracy has been obtained, a further expansion of rights reduces growth. The final essay looks at the connection between inflation and economic growth. Its basic finding is that higher inflation goes along with a lower rate of economic growth.
Unlike recent work that has focused on "endogenous" growth theories, in which the long-term growth rate was determined by government policies and other forces contained in the model, cross-country empirical work draws heavily on the older neoclassical model. The neoclassical model's central idea of conditional convergence receives strong support from the data: holding measures of government policy, initial levels of human capital, and other variables constant, poor countries grow faster than rich countries.
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Опубликовано на портале: 29-11-2003
D.A. Petrovici
This paper draws upon a consumer survey carried out in Bucharest (Romania) to explore determinants of food choice in a transition economy. An adapted version of the Theory of Reasoned Action was developed. This included attitude toward intention, habit and preference as independent variables. The structural equations modelling carried out in 'Analysis of MOment Structures' AMOS showed a significant positive influence of all variables. Similar to other studies conducted in European Union (EU) countries (Saba, Di Natale, 1998) habit outweighed the other variables. The study emphasises the heterogeneity of consumer beliefs about food. Furthermore it was suggested that there is scope for noneconomic variables in explaining food choices and consumer behaviour in these emerging economies, though the influence of these variables may be still limited relative the economic factors. Further research on special groups is required to quantify the influence of non-economic factors and compare the results estimated in Romania with other countries which are candidates to EU accession.
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