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Всего публикаций в данном разделе: 26


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Опубликовано на портале: 12-12-2003
Linxiu Zhang, Alan de Brauw, Scott Rozelle
Durban, 2003
The major objective of this paper is to discuss the development of rural labor markets in China during the past two decades and understand how it has affected women. Using household survey data that we collected in 2001, we examine the role of women in labor markets by examining employment and migration trends and changes in wages. According to the data of our nearly national representative sample, we find that there has been a sharp overall increase in off-farm participation, most of the increase has been driven by young migrants, and women, especially those in the youngest cohorts, have participated at rates equaling or surpassing those of their male counterparts. We also find that the wages of women have not been adversely affected by the emergence of liberalized labor markets and that when women, mostly middle-aged and older ones, are left in charge of farm work, the productivity of crop production does not fall.
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Опубликовано на портале: 06-01-2004
Подавляющее большинство работ по проблематике рынка труда в США посвящено таким факторам, как быстрое усовершенствование технологий, глобализация рынков и ослабление роли профсоюзов. Но мало кто уделял внимание проблемам, связанным с различными способами измерения, на которых основывается анализ рынков труда. Данная книга восполняет этот пробел. Авторы освещают ключевые теоретические и практические вопросы, касающиеся измерения безработицы, заработной платы и различных практик на рабочем месте. Основные главы данного сборника затрагивают следующие аспекты: (1) обзор известных исследований рынков труда с использованием существующих баз данных, (2) новые способы использования баз данных для анализа важных проблем (занятость и безработица, потоки рабочей силы и оплата труда), (3) анализ влияния альтернативных методов измерения на получаемые ответы в проводящихся исследованиях по данной проблематике. Книга предназначена для исследователей в сфере экономики труда и всех, кто интересуется статистикой рынка труда.

Опубликовано на портале: 23-12-2002
Maria Victoria Murillo
Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2001
Why do labor unions resist economic restructuring and adjustment policies in some countries and in some economic sectors while they submit in other cases? And why do some labor leaders fashion more creative and effective roles for labor unions? This work addresses these critical questions in an in-depth elegant comparative study of Argentina, Mexico, and Venezuela in the 1990s. In each case, this book studies both the role of national confederations as well as individual unions in specific economic sectors in each country. It demonstrates the importance of the presence and nature of alliances between political parties and labor unions as well as the significance of competition between labor unions for the representation of the same set of workers. This book opens new horizons for appreciating the intellectual and practical importance of the variation in the interactions between workers, unions, political parties, and economic policies.
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Опубликовано на портале: 24-01-2003
Ray Barrell, Genre Veronique
London: National Institute of Economic and Social Research, 1999
В последние десятилетия многие европейские страны сталкиваются с ростом неравенства в доходах и заработной плате, долгосрочной безработицей. Особенно это касается таких групп на рынке труда, как женщины и молодёжь. Таким образом, реформа рынка труда как необходимый инструмент эффективного развития экономики в целом, осознается практически всеми. В данной работе описывается реформирование рынка труда, проводимое в Соединённом Королевстве, а также в других европейских странах (Дании, Новой Зеландии, Нидерландах). Особое внимание уделяется политике занятости, которая может осуществляться по двум направлениям: создание новых рабочих мест, во-первых, или осуществление ряда мер для более гибкого и эффективного функционирования рынка труда, во-вторых. Часто эти подходы противоречат друг другу и требуют разных мер государственного регулирования. Кроме этого, в книге обсуждаются меры государственной защиты тех групп, которые являются менее конкурентными на рынке труда.
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Опубликовано на портале: 25-01-2003
Tapio Palokangas
New York: Cambridge University Press, 2000
Collective bargaining is still the main vehicle for labour worldwide to negotiate wages, benefits, retirement policies, training and other terms of working with management in both the public and private sectors. Labour economists have long been active in modelling the relations between collective bargaining agreements, labour markets, and social welfare conditions. This book presents a new theoretical model of unions which offers a unified treatment of the centralization of bargaining, the credibility of labour contracts, the unionization of labour markets and the relative bargaining power of the union. Part I of the book develops the microfoundations of bargaining and examines collective bargaining interacting with public policy, investment and growth, and international trade and specialization. In conclusion Professor Palokangas challenges the commonly held view that collective bargaining has a negative impact on economics welfare, and argues that with the existence of market failure, collective bargaining can be welfare enhancing.
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Опубликовано на портале: 31-12-2003
Klaus Deininger, Paul Mpuga
Durban, 2003
Although there is broad agreement that well functioning land rental markets will play an important role to increase productivity and household welfare as agrarian economies develop, evidence from Africa on the actual performance and impact of such markets is limited. We use data from Uganda to test for differences in the performance of rental, as compared to sales markets and their evolution over time, based on a framework where markets are affected by differences in ability and imperfections in rural labor and capital markets.

We find that land markets are very active, that land rental but not sales markets transfer land to more efficient and relatively poor producers thereby providing an opportunity for the landless to access land, and that rental market activity has increased recently with economic growth. Despite land prices in some regions being above the net present value of land we find no evidence for sales markets leading to land concentration and conclude that, rather than imposing administrative restrictions, government should aim to improve access to alternative savings instruments.
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Опубликовано на портале: 29-11-2003
Richard Nehring, V. Eldon Ball, Vince Breneman
The purpose of this paper has been to present quality-adjusted values for land in the United States and nine European countries using price and quantity data for 1990. Disregarding such differences in the quality-adjusted land input would generate biased estimates of the land input and thus of total factor productivity. Land quality adjustments could potentially be enhanced further with additional data on soil characteristics, climate, and other productivity-related characteristics.
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Опубликовано на портале: 19-04-2007
William J. McCluskey, Riel C. D. Franzsen
Burlington: Ashgate Publishing, 2005, 263 с.
Tax is a compulsory payment, usually of monetary form, made by the general body of subjects or citizens to a sovereign or government authority
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Опубликовано на портале: 22-12-2006
Bob Hancke
Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2002, 232 с.
A new firm-centred perspective on the French political economy Analysis of economic readjustment in France 1980-2000 Contains a critique of the conventional perspectives on the relationship between state, economy, and society Case studies include Renault, EDF, Moulinex, and SNCF Between 1980 and 1985, the French economy and industry faced a dramatic crisis; in the ten years that followed, it witnessed a remarkable revival. How did the French economy make this transition? While the state is still an important economic agent in France, and the market certainly has become more central in the organization of the French economy, both state- and market-centered perspectives fail to understand critical elements of this adjustment. Building on the new Varieties of Capitalism approach in political economy which puts firms at the center of the analysis, this book argues that the post-war, state-led system changed into a system organized by and around the large firms. Large firms have always been central in the French post-war economic development model. In the past, however, they adapted to patterns set by the central state. By exploiting the possibilities in government policies in different areas such as finance, labour relations, and regional policies, the large firms were able to induce their main interlocutors - the state, banks, labour unions, workers, and small firms - to adjust in a way which was congruent with their own interests. From subservient economic agents, they became the drivers of economic adjustment. Through this case study of readjustment in France, this book offers a subtle critique of neo-institutionalist perspectives on firms. Institutional frameworks do not simply offer scenarios for adjustment, but are themselves constructions of economic and political actors and therefore subject to change and reorganization. By analysing how large firms in France, arguably one of the least likely places to harbour such endogenous capacities, changed their institutional environment to fit their own needs, this book offers an important new perspective on the political economy of industrial and economic change.
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Опубликовано на портале: 25-01-2003
Jean-Pierre Galavielle
Paris: Press Universitaire, 2000
On enregistre depuis plusieurs années une très forte progression du recours а la sous-traitance. Il a donc paru opportun de proposer une analyse empirique des stratégies de recours а la sous-traitance au regard de la relation Impôt- emploi, dans le prolongement d'un précédent travail, intitulé "Propositions fiscales pour l'emploi" (1997). L'analyse multicritères a permis, dans un premier temps, d'identifier cinq classes de secteurs industriels. Il s'est alors avéré nécessaire de poser la question de savoir si leurs stratègies d'externalisation pouvaient avoir un lien avec leurs comportements fiscaux, au travers notamment de la récupération de TVA. Le recours а la sous-traitance est-il le corollaire du développement éventuel de niches de récupération de taxe? La question mérite d'être posée dans la mesure où la simple observation des statistiques fiscales fait apparaоtre, en peu d'années, une très forte progression des taux de récupération, ceux-ci dépassant а maintes reprises et assez largement les 100% pour certains secteurs. En d'autres termes, la question est: la TVA est-elle susceptible de contribuer а une destruction délibérée et massive des emplois industriels.

Опубликовано на портале: 13-07-2005
Ред.: James E. Rauch, Gerald M. Meier
New York: Oxford University Press, 2000, 578 с.
The 8th Edition is updated to include renaming of savings and investment chapter and expansion of chapter to include contagion and development issues raised by the Asian financial crisis, political economy expands its treatment of the political process of decision making, the human resource chapter adds coverage of gender issues, treatment of poverty is updated to reflect recent research, and new selections are added on the role of social capital in productivity and also on transition economies, selections are strengthened that deal with the microeconomics of development, education, health and agriculture.
Now in its seventh edition, Leading Issues in Economic Development introduces a new co-author, James E. Rauch, and features the most insightful readings from this dynamic and engaging field. It maintains classic themes established over the last 35 years while strengthening analytical and quantitative dimensions and pointing to contemporary and future problems of development policy making.
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Опубликовано на портале: 25-01-2003
George W. Evans, Seppo Honkapohja
Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2001
A crucial challenge for economists is figuring out how people interpret the world and form expectations that will likely influence their economic activity. Inflation, asset prices, exchange rates, investment, and consumption are just some of the economic variables that are largely explained by expectations. Here George Evans and Seppo Honkapohja bring new explanatory power to a variety of expectation formation models by focusing on the learning factor. Whereas the rational expectations paradigm offers the prevailing method to determining expectations, it assumes very theoretical knowledge on the part of economic actors. Evans and Honkapohja contribute to a growing body of research positing that households and firms learn by making forecasts using observed data, updating their forecast rules over time in response to errors. This book is the first systematic development of the new statistical learning approach. Depending on the particular economic structure, the economy may converge to a standard rational-expectations or a "rational bubble" solution, or exhibit persistent learning dynamics. The learning approach also provides tools to assess the importance of new models with expectational indeterminacy, in which expectations are an independent cause of macroeconomic fluctuations. Moreover, learning dynamics provide a theory for the evolution of expectations and selection between alternative equilibria, with implications for business cycles, asset price volatility, and policy. This book provides an authoritative treatment of this emerging field, developing the analytical techniques in detail and using them to synthesize and extend existing research.
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Опубликовано на портале: 29-11-2003
Armelle Maze
The optimal level of formalisation of contracts and their dynamic is at stake in the economic literature on the optimum design of ex post renegotiation with third party enforcement. Another theoretical interpretation is that contract adaptations may also reflect mutual learning process between contractors. Why transactors write explicit contract that they know cannot be court enforced ?

The central idea is that explicit contract terms makes it clearer to the transactors what has been agreed upon, thus are decreasing the cost of private enforcement sanctions (Klein, 1996). Empirical evidences are provided by the diachronic analysis of the full set of tri-partite contracts between one of the top-ten french large retailer and its beef suppliers before and after the BSE crisis (period 1993-1999). The analysis emphasizes also the role of this increased codification of supply contracts with a progressive change in the internal retailer’s organization, i.e. increased centralization of decision and supervision mechanisms. Contract design and organizational choices are then strongly interrelated.
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Опубликовано на портале: 25-01-2003
Karla Gertner
Berlin: BiB, 2000
Монография содержит описание результатов работы по проекту Немецкого национального института демографической статистики и проблем народонаселения "Уровень жизни населения и влияющие на него факторы" за длительный период исследовательских работ. Автор подробно описывает методику проводившихся панельных исследований населения: анкету, методы отбора, контроль качества данных, методику и периодичность наблюдений. Анализируются проблемы и задачи развития проекта в предстоящем периоде, при этом учитываются рекомендации Евростата по развитию европейского сотрудничества в указанной области статистики. Книга может быть полезна всем исследователям, занимающимся демографическими проблемами, а также преподавателям, заинтересованным в организации самостоятельной исследовательской работы студентов по указанной тематике, в качестве ценнейшего источника информации о европейской практике статистических исследований демографических процессов от начального до завершающего этапа их проведения.

Опубликовано на портале: 15-11-2007
Robert E. Lucas
Chicago: Harvard University Press, 2002
In this book the Nobel Prize-winning economist Robert Lucas collects his writings on economic growth, from his seminal "On the Mechanics of Economic Development" to his previously unpublished 1997 Kuznets Lectures. The chapters progress from a general theory of how growth could be sustained and why growth rates might differ in different countries, to a model of exceptional growth in certain countries in the twentieth century, to an account of the take-off of growth in the Industrial Revolution, and finally to a prediction about patterns of growth in this new century. The framework in all the chapters is a model with accumulation of both physical and human capital, with emphasis on the external benefits of human capital through diffusion of new knowledge or on-the-job learning, often stimulated by trade. The Kuznets Lectures consider the interaction of human capital growth and the demographic transition in the early stages of industrialization. In the final chapter, Lucas uses a diffusion model to illustrate the possibility that the vast intersociety income inequality created in the course of the Industrial Revolution may have already reached its peak, and that income differences will decline in this century.
ресурс содержит полный текст, либо отрывок из него ресурс содержит гиперссылку на сайт, на котором можно найти дополнительную информацию ресурс содержит графическое изображение (иллюстрацию)