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Всего публикаций в данном разделе: 19

Книги

Авторы:
А Б В Г Д Е Ж З И ЙК Л М Н О П Р С Т У Ф Х Ц Ч Ш Щ Э Ю Я
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z
 
Названия:
все А Б В Г Д Е Ж З И ЙК Л М Н О П Р С Т У Ф Х Ц Ч Ш ЩЭ Ю Я
5 A B C D E F G H I J K L M N OP Q R S T U V W XY Z
 

Опубликовано на портале: 29-09-2003
Издание представляет собой справочник для людей, желающих быть в курсе последних тенденций на рынке труда и намеренных заняться в ближайшие годы собственной карьерой. Хотя данные, представленные в нем, касаются только США, он содержит немало полезной практической информации для изучающих экономику труда. В нем представлены статистические данные, характеризующие ситуацию занятости в США за последние годы, подробную информацию о рабочей силе, о распределении занятых по профессиям и занятиям, об уровнях заработной платы, о наиболее перспективных направлениях образования и профессиях, пользующихся наибольшим спросом в настоящее время. Кроме того, даются прогнозы по всем перечисленным показателям на ближайшие годы.
ресурс содержит полный текст, либо отрывок из него ресурс содержит гиперссылку на сайт, на котором можно найти дополнительную информацию ресурс содержит графическое изображение (иллюстрацию)

Odious Debt [книги]
Опубликовано на портале: 11-01-2003
Michael Kremer, Seema Jayachandran
2003
Some argue that sovereign debt incurred without the consent of the people and not for their benefit, such as that of apartheid South Africa, should be considered odious and not transferable to successor governments. We argue that an institution that truthfully announced whether regimes are odious could create an equilibrium in which successor governments suffer no reputational loss from failure to repay odious debt and hence creditors curtail odious lending. Equilibria with odious lending could be eliminated by amending creditor country laws to prevent seizure of assets for failure to repay odious debt and restricting foreign assistance to countries not repaying odious debt. Shutting down the borrowing capacity of illegitimate regimes can be viewed as a form of economic sanction and has two advantages over most sanctions: it helps rather than hurts the population, and it does not create incentives for evasion by third parties. However, an institution empowered to assess regimes might falsely term debt odious if it favored debtors, and if creditors anticipate this, they would not make loans to legitimate governments. An institution empowered only to declare future lending to a particular government odious would have greater incentives to judge truthfully. A similar approach could be used to reduce moral hazard associated with World Bank and IMF loans.

Опубликовано на портале: 25-10-2003
Drawing on philosophy and psychology, Schlicht seeks to reintroduce the notion of custom in economics. In the process, he provides a link between market processes, which are often analyzed, and customary elements, which have been neglected by economists or at best seen as routines that have been adopted because they were competitively successful.
ресурс содержит графическое изображение (иллюстрацию)

Опубликовано на портале: 22-10-2003
Institutionalist analysis is increasingly used as a key research tool for economists confronted with the shortcomings of mainstream economic analysis and the problems presented by the transformation of socio-economic systems in Eastern Europe. On Economic Institutions brings together leading economists working in a wide range of research traditions who examine theories of institutions and institutional change.
ресурс содержит полный текст, либо отрывок из него ресурс содержит графическое изображение (иллюстрацию)

On Exchange Rate [книги]
Опубликовано на портале: 25-01-2003
Jeffrey A. Frankel
Cambridge, Mass: MIT Press, 1993
These seventeen essays provide an accessible and thorough reference for understanding the role of exchange rates in the international monetary system since 1973, when the rates were allowed to float. The essays analyze such issues as exchange rate movements, exchange risk premia, investor expectations of exchange rates and behavior of exchange rates in different systems. Frankel's sound empirical treatment of exchange rate questions shows that it is possible to produce work that is interesting from a purely intellectual viewpoint while contributing to practical knowledge of the real world of international economics and finance. The essays have been organized in a way that provides an introduction to the field of empirical international finance. Part I documents the steady reduction in barriers to international capital movement and leads logically to part II, which explains how exchange rates are determined. Both monetary and portfolio-based models are surveyed in part II, providing a clear transition to the topic of part III; the possible existence of an exchange risk premium. Part IV applies the tools discussed in earlier sections to explore various policy questions related to exchange rate expectations such as whether foreign exchange intervention matters and whether the European monetary system had become credible by 1991. Each part begins with a detailed introduction explaining not only the central issues of that section but also suggesting connections with other essays in the book.
ресурс содержит гиперссылку на сайт, на котором можно найти дополнительную информацию ресурс содержит графическое изображение (иллюстрацию)

Опубликовано на портале: 30-04-2003
Gregory N. Mankiw
Изд-во: Worth Publishers, 2002
Интерактивный тест представляет собой набор вопросов и несколько вариантов ответов, из которых необходимо выбрать один правильный. Вопросы могут быть как теоретическими, так и практическими, требующими незначительных вычислений. По каждой теме учебника составлены отдельные задания. Для прохождения теста необходимо иметь знания на промежуточном (макроэкономика-2) уровне. Успешное выполнение большей части заданий не требует обязательного прочтения учебника Мэнкью, т.к. тест содержит общие для макроэкономической теории вопросы. Ответив на все вопросы, пользователь может посмотреть свой результат, верный ответ и ссылки на те разделы учебника, которые содержат пояснения к ответам.
ресурс содержит полный текст, либо отрывок из него ресурс содержит гиперссылку на сайт, на котором можно найти дополнительную информацию

Опубликовано на портале: 31-03-2005
Ernst-August Nuppenau
2004
This contribution deals with opportunities to integrate ecological objectives into landscape modelling. We start with the behaviour of farmers. By depicting the behaviour of farmers with respect to land use we determine farm and field sizes, as been dependent on prices, natural conditions, and structural variables, such as farm technologies. Then we pursue the idea that a geometrical interpretation of land use can help us to define an interface between farming, landscape modelling, and ecological concerns. This interface goes along economic rationales for income of farmers and ecological rationales for a redesign of landscapes. Next, for integrating ecological oriented nature components into a landscape planning, as been based on economic incentives, a payment scheme has to be introduced. Such payment scheme becomes part of farmers’ objective functions in a non-linear model. Core decision variables are the longitudinal stretch of field sizes and the transversal stretch of farm sizes. Then, given various natural frames within an overarching subdivision of field parcels, farms and the landscape are optimised. The suggested approach can be sequentially solved taking into consideration natural conditions and behaviour. Furthermore, a central focus is on policy instruments: 1. We cater for impacts of price policies on landscape structure (farm size) and ecology (heterogeneity of fields). Note, in this context, that it is important to depict the growth of fields as being a consequence of imposed price pressure, modern technology application, and income aspirations. 2. The ecological impacts of this process, also from intensity of farming, are addressed and measured as a diversity index. 3. Policies can be selected that maintain farm income and correct for negative ecological effects of field size changes. For this reason we suggest a principal agent approach and offer objective functions.
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Опубликовано на портале: 29-11-2003
Konrad Hagedorn
2002
This paper aims at explaining the role and importance of the evolution of institutions for sustainable agri-environments during the transition process by referring to agrienvironmental problems faced in Central and Eastern European countries. A central question therefore is whether the required institutional arrangements for achieving sustainability in the area of agri-environmental resource management can be built more easily in periods of transition as they fill institutional gaps, or whether processes of transition make institution building a more difficult and far more time consuming task than previously thought. Above all, we want to find out, how these two processes of institution building at different scales affect the sustainable management of resources such as water and biodiversity in agriculture. It will become clear that the agri-environmental problem areas faced during transition are complex and dynamic and require adequate institutions both by political design and from the grassroots, to be developed by the respective actors involved. Transition from centrally planned to pluralistic systems has to be considered as a particular and in some respect nontypical process of institutional change. Popular theories of institutional change do not necessarily apply. The privatisation experience from many CEE countries will serve as an example. Finally, we will emphasis the problem of missing or insufficient interaction between political actors or agencies and people in CEE countries. Substantial investments into social and human capital, particularly regarding informal institutions are needed for institutions of sustainability to evolve.
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Опубликовано на портале: 31-12-2003
Agnar Hegrenes, Anders Ringgaard Kristensen, Gudbrand Lien
Durban, 2003
A model is presented to investigate the optimal economic life cycle of grass leys with winter damage problems in northern Norway and to determine the threshold of winter damage before it is profitable to reseed. A two-level hierarchic Markov process has been constructed using the MLHMP software. The model takes uncertainty concerning yield potential, damage estimation and weather dependent random fluctuations into account. A Kalman filter technique is used for updating of knowledge on yield potential and damage level.

The application of the model is demonstrated using data from two commercial Norwegian farms. Since parameter estimates vary considerably among farms, it is concluded that decision support concerning optimal economic life cycle of grass leys should be done at farm level. The results also show the importance of using a flexible dynamic replacement strategy. Use of the model for a specific farm situation is illustrated.
ресурс содержит прикрепленный файл

Опубликовано на портале: 01-09-2003
Giancarlo Corsetti, Nouriel Roubini
2003
This paper analyzes optimal spending, tax and financial policies in models of endogenous growth where public spending is productive. We extend previous work in four directions. First, we analyze optimal policies when the government is allowed to borrow and lend, rather than being restricted to run a balanced budget in every period. Second, we develop a model with a separate human capital accumulation sector. Therefore, the properties of optimal policies depend on whether government spending affects the productivity of the final goods sector or the human capital accumulation sector. Third, we consider the policy implications of alternative assumptions about which factor of production benefits from the external effects of productive public goods. Fourth, we study the implications of restrictions on the menu of tax instruments available to the policy maker. We contrast optimal tax rates on human and physical capital under different assumptions on technology and distribution. We analyze the welfare properties of public debt and assets.

Опубликовано на портале: 11-01-2003
Andres Velasco, Eric Parrado
2003
Using an optimizing model we derive the optimal monetary and exchange rate policy for a small stochastic open economy with imperfect competition and short run price rigidity. The optimal monetary policy has an exact closed-form solution and is obtained using the utility function of the representative home agent as welfare criterion. The optimal policy depends on the source of stochastic disturbances affecting the economy, much as in the literature pioneered by Poole (1970). Optimal monetary policy reacts to domestic and foreign disturbances. If the intertemporal elasticity of substitution in consumption is less than one, as is likely to be the case empirically, the optimal exchange rate policy implies a dirty float: interest rate shocks from abroad are met partially by adjusting home interest rates, and partially by allowing the exchange rate to move. This optimal pattern may help rationalize the observed fear of floating.

Опубликовано на портале: 29-08-2003
Robert J. Barro
2003
A tax-smoothing objective is used to assess the optimal consumption of public debt with respect to maturity and contingencies. This objective motivates the government to make its debt payout contingent on the levels of public outlay and the tax base. If these contingencies are present, but asset prices of non-contingent indexed debt are stochastic, then full tax smoothing dictates an optimal maturity structure of the non-contingent debt. If the certainty-equivalent outlays are the same for each period then the government should guarantee equal real payouts in each period, that is, the debt takes the form of indexed consols. This structure insulates the government's budget constraint from unpredictable variations in the market prices of indexed bonds of various maturities. If contingent debt is precluded, then the government may want to depart from a consol maturity structure to exploit covariances among public outlay, the tax base, and the term structure of real interest rates. However, if moral hazard is the reason for the preclusion of contingent debt, then this consideration also deters exploitation of these covariances and tends to return the optimal solution to the consol maturity structure. The issue of nominal bonds may allow the government to exploit the covariances among public outlay, the tax base, and the rate of inflation. But if moral-hazard explains the absence of contingent debt, then the same reasoning tends to make nominal debt issue undesirable. The bottom line is that an optimal-tax approach to public debt favors bonds that are indexed and long term.

Опубликовано на портале: 30-11-2003
Johannes Roseboom, Paul Diederen, Arie Kuyvenhoven
2003
Appeals for targeting agricultural R&D in developing countries more explicitly to the needs of poor smallholders in marginal areas are often countered by arguments of efficiency. Others, however, taking a political economy perspective, argue that there is a bias in the selection of agricultural R&D projects towards commercial farmers in the better agricultural areas. In this paper, we try to bring the two perspectives together and illustrate how they interact. We analyze R&D budget allocation assuming two distinct R&D opportunity curves, one for poor smallholders and one for large commercial farmers. We find that, in contrast to the actual allocation of research resources, an efficient allocation (i.e., equalizing the marginal rate of return between the two portfolios) would increase the budget for smallholder projects by 29% and decrease that of commercial farmer projects by 26%. Total economic welfare would increase with 2.1% and there is a modest distributional effect: smallholder welfare increases by 14% and commercial farmer welfare decreases by 11%. In other words, more efficiency in the selection of agricultural R&D projects favors poor smallholders. We also analyze the effects of a premium on research benefits accruing to smallholders and find them to be limited. Rather than trying to shift the R&D opportunity curve artificially, we conclude that policies that can help to increase the profitability of research investments across the board (such as investment in infrastructure, development of markets, and education) and hence shift the R&D opportunity curve for poor smallholders outwards should be pursued more vigorously.
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Опубликовано на портале: 29-11-2003
Anna Haring
2002
Organic farming is increasingly considered in the European Common Agricultural Policy. Sound evaluations of the effects of policy measures on organic farms in the EU are needed to face the challenges in future policy design. The effects of various policy scenarios on profitability and development strategies of typical organic arable and dairy farms are analysed for the EU countries Germany, Denmark, the United Kingdom and Italy. Based on an approach which integrates simulation modelling and focus groups, profitability of model farms is analysed ex-post for year the 1999 and their potential development simulated until 2008 under Agenda 2000 and three alternative policy scenarios. For each policy scenario potential farm adaptation strategies are analysed.

Size, structure, productivity, achieved output prices and policy surrounding of typical organic farms differ widely between countries and farm types. Great differences in the contribution of payments to total farm profit and farm family labour remuneration are observed. Dairy model farms are expected to slightly benefit from Agenda 2000, while arable farms are more susceptible to price reductions realised in the Agenda 2000 package. In adaptation to Agenda 2000 organic dairy farms are expected to grow, while arable farms are more likely to diversify production or envisage valued adding strategies. The effects of alternative policy scenarios on profitability of typical farms are similar in all countries. The choice of adaptation strategy of farmers in the different countries, however, vary significantly, mainly due to the current market situation.
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Опубликовано на портале: 04-01-2004
Jurgen Zeddies
Boston: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2000, 471-493 с.
This paper analyzes the situation of large scale farms, mostly former kolkhozes and sovkhozes, in the Russian transition period. A continuing, significant decline in land use, employment, production, productivity, liquidity and financial results since privatization in 1992 and after the considerable changes in economic and legal sphere in 1995-96 is documented.

The development of factor endowment, crop and livestock production, marketing and management failures rising from necessary adjustment to the changing economic environment and organization problems are elaborated. Finally the paper gives some policy recommendations for improving the economic setting in which Russia’s large scale farms have to operate.
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