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Всего публикаций в данном разделе: 168

Книги

Авторы:
А Б В Г Д Е Ж З И ЙК Л М Н О П Р С Т У Ф Х Ц Ч Ш Щ Э Ю Я
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z
 
Названия:
все А Б В Г Д Е Ж З И ЙК Л М Н О П Р С Т У Ф Х Ц Ч Ш ЩЭ Ю Я
5 A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S TU V W XY Z
 

Опубликовано на портале: 25-01-2003
Andreas Haufler
New York: Cambridge University Press, 2001
In recent years the increasing international mobility of capital, firms and consumers has begun to constrain tax policies in most OECD countries, playing a major role in reforming national tax systems. Haufler uses the theory of international taxation to consider the fundamental forces underlying this process, covering both factor and commodity taxes, as well as their interaction. Topics include a variety of different international tax avoidance strategies - capital flight, profit shifting in multinational firms, and cross-border shopping by consumers. Situations in which tax competition creates conflicting interests between countries are given particular consideration. Haufler addresses the complex issue of coordination in different areas of tax policy, with special emphasis on regional tax harmonization in the European Union. Also included is a detailed introduction to recent theoretical literature.
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Опубликовано на портале: 30-08-2003
Austan Goolsbee
2003
This paper shows that tax policy toward investment, by changing the relative prices of capital varieties, can have a direct effect on the quality of capital goods that firms purchase. The empirical results indicate that this impact is economically important and readily apparent in disaggregated data on farming, mining, and construction machinery. The paper also applies a general method for aggregation using index number theory which suggests that all of the investment increase generated by tax subsidies comes from buying higher quality capital goods as opposed to buying a larger number of capital goods. It shows, further, that the supply of capital is upward sloping with an elasticity of about one. The tax induced quality changes documented in the paper imply a tax distortion whose deadweight loss is neglected in the conventional literature but whose magnitude indicates may represent a substantial efficiency cost from capital taxation (or subsidy).

Опубликовано на портале: 30-08-2003
Lans Arij Bovenberg, Johan J. Graafland, Ruud A. de Mooij
2003
This paper employs MIMIC, an applied general equilibrium model of the Dutch economy, to explore various tax cuts aimed at combating unemployment and raising labor supply. MIMIC combines modern labor-market theories, a firm empirical foundation detailed description of Dutch labor-market institutions. We develop a small aggregate model which contains the core of MIMIC, namely wage setting, job matching, labor supply demand. In addition to illustrating the main economic mechanisms in MIMIC shows the advantages of employing a larger, more disaggregated model that accounts for heterogeneity, institutional details, and more economic mechanisms. Targeting in-work benefits at the low skilled is the most effective way to cut economy-wide unemployment quality and quantity of labor supply. Cuts in social security contributions paid by employers and subsidies for hiring long-term unemployed reduce unskilled unemployment most substantially. Tax cuts in the higher tax brackets boost the quantity and quality of formal labor supply but are less effective in reducing unemployment and in raising unskilled employment and female labor supply.

Опубликовано на портале: 30-11-2003
Paul Dorosh, Moataz El-Said, Hans Lofgren
2003
In Uganda, as in much of sub-Saharan Africa, poverty is concentrated in rural areas. Because agriculture accounts for a large share of incomes for these households, policies and external shocks that affect agriculture, including shifts in world prices, changes in agricultural productivity, and reductions in marketing costs, may have significant effects on rural poverty. In this paper, we use a Computable General Equilibrium (CGE) model of the Ugandan economy, explicitly designed to capture regional variations in agricultural production and household incomes, to examine the implications of these policy changes and shocks.

Simulation results suggest that a doubling of area planted to coffee (the government.s target) would increase rural consumption by less than 2.0 percent, because of an estimated 10 percent decline in the world price of robusta coffee and an 11.3 percent real exchange rate appreciation of the Ugandan shilling. Smaller productivity increases in food crops may have greater potential to raise rural incomes, provided that markets perform well and producer incentives are maintained. A five percent increase in agricultural productivity raises consumption by 1.3 to 2.1 percent among rural households and lowers food prices by 3.4 to 3.8 percent relative to the CPI, thus benefiting households with high food consumption shares. Reducing agricultural marketing margins by 30 percent leads to increases of 2.3 to 4.1 percent in consumption of farm households, with the largest gains in regions where consumption out of own production is lower.
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Опубликовано на портале: 31-12-2003
Laure Latruffe, Kelvin Balcombe, Katarzyna Zawalinska, Sophia Moissey Davidova
Durban, 2003
The technical and scale efficiency of Polish farms is analysed, using Data Envelopment Analysis. Efficiency differences are measured according to farm specialisation, in crop or livestock, at two points in time during transition, 1996 and 2000. The statistical variability of efficiency estimates is investigated. The efficiency results are reviewed in the light of confidence intervals provided by bootstrapping and of a summary measure introduced in this study ‘the coefficient of separation’. The inference analysis suggests that farms might be less efficient than revealed by the point estimates alone, and that they might not be clearly different from each other.
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Опубликовано на портале: 01-02-2007
Carlota Perez
Cheltenham: Edward Elgar, 2002, 224 с.
Technological Revolutions and Financial Capital presents a novel interpretation of the good and bad times in the economy, taking a long-term perspective and linking technology and finance in an original and convincing way.
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Опубликовано на портале: 29-11-2003
Steen Koekebakker, Gudbrand Lien
2002
Empirical evidence suggests that agricultural futures price movements have fat-tailed distributions and exhibit sudden and unexpected price jumps. There is also evidence that the volatility of futures prices contains a term structure depending on both calendar-time and time to maturity. This paper extends Bates (1991) jump-diffusion option pricing model by including both seasonal and maturity effects in volatility. An in-sample fit to market option prices on wheat futures shows that our model outperforms previous models considered in the literature. A numerical example illustrates the economic significance of our results for option valuation.
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Опубликовано на портале: 31-12-2003
Klaus Salhofer, Erwin Schmid, Герхард Штрейхер, Friedrich Georg Schneider
Durban, 2003
The study evaluates the efficiency of government intervention using a vertical structured model including imperfectly competitive agricultural input markets, the bread grain market, and the imperfectly competitive food industry. To test for policy efficiency the actually observed bread grain policy is compared to a hypothetical efficient policy. To account for the sensitivity of the results in regard to the model parameter values computer-intensive simulation procedures and surface response functions are utilized.
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Опубликовано на портале: 30-11-2003
Yves Surry, Rabelais Yankam Njonou, Bruno Henry De Frahan
2002
This study has used a corrected likelihood ratio, with AIDS and Rotterdam demand models, to test separability in three separable (A, B, C) wheat import demand structures on the French common wheat market. It appears from the study that the three separable Rotterdam structures are accepted by the test, while only two of them (B and C) are accepted in the case of AIDS at 5% level of significance. Meanwhile, model B seems to be more indicated in demand analysis with AIDS since it is the only one accepted at 15% level of significance. The results obtained demonstrate not only the necessity to test separability in demand structures, but also the necessity to know how the allocation models can be used for demand analysis purpose. The study has also shown a great difference in econometric results for AIDS and Rotterdam and pose once more the issue of the choice of a functional form in demand analysis.
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Опубликовано на портале: 04-01-2004
Klaus M. Leisinger
Berlin, 2000
At the beginning of the new millennium, a 150-year-old conceptual skeleton—the “political economy”—is rattling loudly in the closet. Marx described early on in his work that there is a close and circular relationship between the social conditions of a nation and its conditions for production—and consequently the economic development. In this context, institutional structures and social values as well as ways of thinking and attitudes of members of civil society are very important. In the current discussion of agricultural biotechnology for developing countries, this part of the Marxian analysis seems highly relevant, particularly for urban impoverished groups as well as resource-poor farmers and their families. This paper looks at the impact that today’s politicized discussion in Europe is having on public research for the developing world and proposes elements for building a bridge over the troubled waters currently dividing proponents and opponents of agricultural biotechnology.
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Опубликовано на портале: 29-11-2003
Carlo Bernini Carri, Maria Sassi
2002
The paper explores the phenomenon of agricultural convergence on regional base within the EU economic cohesion that has always been and still remains one of the mainstay of the EU building process (EU, 1997). A crucial issue is the theoretical and empirical testing of a catching up process, that is a faster growth of the poor countries (regions) than that of the rich ones. The literature on this topic has strengthened recently, but it is mainly referred to economic convergence undermining the importance of the process in the agricultural sector. The relevance mainly refers to the role of the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP). It is the only European policy thought and managed at overnational level with the specific object to overcome the deep agricultural structural disparities within the Member States. This process has been considered fundamental to reach the agricultural and thus economic European integration. Moreover, the interrelationship (if any) between agricultural and economic convergence is of potential interest given that the nature of structural change within agriculture is likely to shaped by broader economic conditions (especially the state of local labour markets).

Thus, the paper first explores the process of agricultural and economic convergence using EU data on real Gross Domestic Product per capita and real Gross Agricultural Value Added per agricultural Work Unit at the level of NUTS 2 regions for 1982,1986 and 1994. Then, it analyses whether: - The intensity of the convergence process in the agricultural sector has been strong enough to promote a decrease in the gap between the agricultural and the economic performance; - The agricultural and economic process of convergence are related on territorial base. Policy implications are not analysed because data at regional level are not available. In literature, the results of testing convergence hypothesis are mixed and strongly dependent on the methodologies applied, the level of analysis, and the explanatory variables adopted (Bernini Carri, Sassi, 1998).
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Опубликовано на портале: 09-12-2003
Robert Bork
New York: Free Press, 1993, 479 с.
Книга посвящена описанию кризисного состояния антимонопольного регулирования (преимущественного в Соединенных Штатах) и состоит из трех частей. В первой части рассматриваются теоретические основы антимонопольной политики, ее цели и методы, а также теория поведения фирмы и предпочтений потребителя. Во второй части анализируется соотношение между законодательством и экономической политикой в отношении слияний, поглощений, сегментации рынка и барьеров входа на рынок, ценовой дискриминации, связанных продаж и пр. В заключении подводятся итоги исследования и формулируют политические рекомендации в отношени антимонопольной политики.
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Опубликовано на портале: 24-12-2003
Steven Franzel, Donald Phiri, Paramu Mafongoya
Durban, 2003
Although there is increasing emphasis on targeting of improved technology towards poor and female farmers, few adoption studies assess the uptake of new practices by these groups in a comprehensive manner.

In this study, community members used the wealth ranking method to identify the different wealth groups in their communities, to determine each household.s wealth status, and to assess the association of wealth and different types of households with the planting of improved tree fallows, a practice for improving crop yields. There were no significant differences between the proportions of women and men planting improved fallows nor were there differences between single women and female heads of households who were married. There was some evidence of association between planting improved fallows and wealth. That 22% of the .poor. group and 16% of the. very poor. group were planting them suggests that there are no barriers preventing low-income households from doing so. Moreover, the proportion of females, poor, and very poor people planting improved fallows varied considerably among villages, suggesting that opportunities exist for increasing their use of the technology. Whereas the use of mineral fertilizer is strongly associated with high- income, male farmers, improved fallows appear to be a gender-neutral and wealth-neutral technology. Poor farmers appreciate improved fallows because they permit them to substitute small amounts of land and labour for cash, their most scarce resource. Finally, the high degree of consistency among different key informants in classifying households among wealth groups confirmed the effectiveness and accuracy of the wealth ranking exercise.
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Опубликовано на портале: 21-10-2003
This book reexamines one of the most provocative and debated models of bureaucratic behavior, as developed by William A. Niskanen in his seminal book, Bureaucracy and Representative Government(1971). His theory has been discussed, tested, and amended by scholars over twenty years. In The Budget-Maximizing Bureaucrat, Niskanen now offers his own reassessment. Thirteen scholars then evaluate the wide array of findings, both qualitative and quantitative, relevant to the various aspects of the model, offering conclusions about the merits and limits of the theory and suggesting alternative explanations of bureaucratic behavior.
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Опубликовано на портале: 31-12-2003
John C. Beghin, Jean-Christophe Bureau, Sophie Drogue
Durban, 2003
We introduce an easily implemented and flexible calibration technique for partial demand systems, combining recent developments in incomplete demand systems and a set of restrictions conditioned on the available elasticity-estimates. The technique accommodates various degrees of knowledge on cross-price elasticities, satisfies curvature restrictions, and allows the recovery of an exact welfare measure for policy analysis. The technique is illustrated with a partial demand system for food consumption in Korea for different states of knowledge on cross-price effects. The consumer welfare impact of food and agricultural trade liberalization is measured.
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