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Всего публикаций в данном разделе: 2140

5 A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W XY Z

Опубликовано на портале: 05-01-2003
Robert Vienneau
Colorado: Blackwell Publishing Company, 2001
The LTV is the sound theory that market prices are attracted by prices proportional to the labor time embodied in commodities. In other words, relative prices tend towards relative labor values. The LTV is restricted to the analysis of reproducible commodities that have a use value in a capitalist society. Although the LTV is commonly associated with Classical economics, arguably neither Marx nor any first tier Classical economist accepted the LTV as a valid theory for capitalist economies.
David Ricardo, one of the greatest Classical economists, and Karl Marx thought that their analyses had greater applicability than the special cases in which the LTV is valid as a theory of price. Marx seemed to think that abstract labor time is a common substance in all commodities, while denying that prices tended to be proportional to labor values.
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Опубликовано на портале: 08-10-2003
Книга, построенная на теории вероятности, статистике и современной теории портфеля, рассказывает о том, как использовать различные методы управления капиталом на фьючерсном, валютном, фондовом и других рынках. Излагаемые концепции становятся понятными, благодаря практическим примерам, наглядно иллюстрирующим их использование в торговле. Сочетая практику современной теории портфеля с концепций "оптимального f", автор показывает, как соизмерять ставки и возможные последствия торговых решений. Рассмотренные стратегии позволяют определять оптимальное количество контрактов для торговли на любых рынках, максимизировать прибыль при торговле с реинвестированием, рассчитывать веса компонентов инвестиционного портфеля. Книга рассчитана на профессиональных трейдеров и аналитиков, частных и институционных инвесторов, работающих на фондовом рынке, рынке форекс, а также на рынках фьючерсов и опционов. К книге прилагается компакт-диск.
ресурс содержит гиперссылку на сайт, на котором можно найти дополнительную информацию ресурс содержит графическое изображение (иллюстрацию)

Опубликовано на портале: 29-03-2005
Bruno Vindel
Complying with the legal framework of EU regulation 1257/99, the implementation of the rural development pillar of the CAP in France takes over several measures constitutive of previous programs, and institutes significant innovations, reflecting both the evolution of French rural territories and the political choice of a more sustainable and multifunctional agriculture. That is why, before describing the organisation and methodology of the recently completed midterm evaluation, this paper emphasises the present trends of evolution in French rural zones. The lessons learned from the evaluation will be then detailed, in the third part of the paper.
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Опубликовано на портале: 16-02-2005
Jacob Viner
Основная цель настоящей статьи - изложить метод графического описания зависимости кривой затрат от возможных типов технологических ситуаций и ситуаций, связанных с денежными затратами, с учетом обычного в этом случае предположения о наличии атомистической конкуренции и рациональном экономическом поведении производителей. Автор не делал попытки реалистического описания существующих типов зависимости между затратами и предложением и считал, что его задача скромнее: представить формальные типы зависимости, которые возможны при определенных упрощающих предположениях. Но в итоге ему удалось предложить графическую интерпетацию кривых средних и предельных затрат, которую можно встретить сегодня в любом учебнике по микроэкономике.
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Опубликовано на портале: 12-12-2003
W. Kip Viscusi, John M. Vernon, Joseph E. Harrington
Cambridge, Mass: MIT Press, 2000, 896 с.
Departing from the traditional emphasis on institutions, this text emphasizes the use of economic theory and empirical analysis to understand regulatory and antitrust policies. Questions addressed include: What are the market failure rationales for, and appropriate form of, government intervention? What does theory show about competition in the presence of a market failure and the implications of government intervention to correct that failure? What do empirical analyses indicate about our regulatory experience and the direction of future intervention?

The third edition addresses many issues that have recently dominated the economic and political landscape. New material reviews the government's case against Microsoft, charges of anticompetitive pricing in NASDAQ and airlines, the blocked Staples-Office Depot merger, and the Telecommunications Act of 1996. This edition also covers the deregulation of the California electric power industry as well as recent deregulatory efforts in bank branching and natural gas transmission. On the social regulatory scene, it covers in detail recent cigarette litigation and the contentious issue of the contingent valuation of natural resource damages, as exemplified in the Exxon Valdez oil spill. New empirical evidence appears throughout the book.

Each part of the text can be used separately for a variety of courses including regulation and antitrust in undergraduate institutions, business schools, and schools of public policy, as well as background for doctoral courses. Exercises are included at the end of each chapter.
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Опубликовано на портале: 29-11-2003
Liesbet Vranken, Johan Swinnen
This paper uses data from a survey of more than 1,400 farming households in Hungary to identify a set of profiles of farming households, which are active in the rental market and to estimate econometrically the impact of household characteristics, such as social, physical, and human capital, as well as regional and environmental characteristics on land rental activities. We show that the decision of farming households to lease in land is related to their land endowment, their access to capital assets, human capital variables such as age and education and their social capital. Environmental factors are also important.
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Опубликовано на портале: 22-09-2003
Jack Vromen
London: Routledge, 1995, 256 с.
Economic Evolution explores three of the main approaches within the new institutional economics: the new theory of the firm, Nelson and Winter's evolutionary economics and game theoretic accounts of spontaneous evolution. Close analysis reveals that the approaches differ on such fundamental issues as the meaning of terms like 'institution' and 'evolution'. However, the book also uncovers two evolutionary mechanisms that govern processes of economic change in all of these approaches.
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Опубликовано на портале: 29-03-2005
Klaus Wagner
The evaluation of the effects of different measures of the Austrian Agri-Environmental Programme (ÖPUL) on groundwater has to take into consideration various different dimensions of the analysis process. To begin with, there are EU guidelines for the evaluation that lay down questions, criteria and indicators that have to be answered. A second dimension of the evaluation process refers to the level of the different measures. Here we are dealing with single measures, bundles of measures for a specific objective and voluntary or obligatory combinations of measures. In addition, we have to consider that the measures concerning groundwater protection can have effects in a strong or weak, direct or indirect manner, in a selective or more extensive way. The time-related aspect of the effects is of enormous importance, not only in connection with the different programme variants (ÖPUL 95, ÖPUL 98 and ÖPUL 2000) but also in connection with the short-term or long-term effects of measures, depending also on local and regional characteristics. Of great importance is the spatial component in the analyses. In Austria, we have pore-groundwater regions where programmes for measuring the groundwater quality have been installed for many years. Of equal interest is the development of the groundwater quality in ÖPUL testing areas because there is detailed information available about the agricultural structures and the acceptance of ÖPUL measures. Finally, we have to observe the particular groundwater measure project regions, where a variety of special groundwater measures is available to farmers. These different types of regions frequently overlap each other but not always. Accordingly, the evaluation process is a multidimensional task that has to describe the relevance and the acceptance of the measures along with their potential and actual effects.
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Опубликовано на портале: 27-10-2003
This book applies an institutional perspective on transnational entrepreneurship to empirical investigations of transnational corporations from Hong Kong and Singapore. Henry Wai-chung Yeung argues that significant variations in institutional structures of home countries explain variations in the entrepreneurial endowments of prospective transnational business networks. This is illustrated by empirical data from two in-depth studies of over 300 TNCs from Hong Kong and Singapore and over 120 of their foreign affiliates in Asia.
Entrepreneurship and the Internationalisation of Asian Firms is a timely contribution to theoretical and empirical studies in international business and will be widely read by those interested in international business, industrial economics, organization studies, political economy, regional studies and economic geography.
ресурс содержит графическое изображение (иллюстрацию)

Опубликовано на портале: 31-12-2003
Edilegnaw Wale, Detlef Virchow
Durban, 2003
Crop genetic resources are the building blocks of sustainable agricultural development due to their relevance not only as inputs for variety development but also as indigenous crop insurance mechanisms through traditional variety portfolio management. Their continuous survival is, however, threatened by natural and human driven factors. This threat has induced the need for designing conservation measures. Among the in situ and ex situ conservation options available to conserve crop genetic resources, on-farm conservation has recently attracted enormous attention. To make this option operational, placing incentives (that link conservation with utilization) and removal of perverse incentives are believed to be crucial so that landraces of no immediate interest to farmers can be conserved.

However, before designing sound incentives and/or removing perverse incentives, we have to understand farmers. motives for managing a portfolio of traditional varieties.

To address our objective, we have adopted a utility based model that considers on-farm diversity as a positive externality of farmers. livelihood decisions. Accordingly, on-farm diversity is considered as the derived outcome of farmers. revealed preferences subject to their concerns and constraints. To empirically test the relationships, a Poisson regression model is estimated using rural household survey data collected from 198 sorghum growing farmers in East Ethiopia. The results have shown the most important diversity promoting factors and those factors detaching the link between farmers’ ‘survival first’ motives and their spillover effects on sorghum diversity. Based on the results, the paper concludes outlining the policy implications of the findings.
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Опубликовано на портале: 04-01-2004
Ред.: Nigel Walford, John Everitt, Darrell Napton
Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1999, 288 с.
Focusing on changes in the United Kingdom, the United States, and Canada, this book explores the issues of continuity and change associated with the operation of demographic, socio-economic, and political processes as they reshape the countryside.

В книге исследуется процесс серьёзных изменений, происходящих сегодня в сельской местности под воздействием демографических, социо - экономических и политических факторов (на примере США, Канады, Великобритании).

Опубликовано на портале: 04-01-2004
Jurgen Wandel
Boston: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2000, 359-381 с.
By means of the transaction cost theory, the study identifies the motives for vertical integration or coordination in the Russian agro-food sector and assesses the forms of vertical integration developed so far. One can distinguish between state-initiated integration forms and such initiated by the economic agents themselves. Whereas the aim of the former is to dilute assumed market power of the food industry, uncertainty about market partners regarding reliable supply and marketing conditions and especially the fulfillment of payment obligation is the main motive for the latter. Often the chosen forms of vertical integration or cooperation not only comprise enterprises of the whole marketing chain, but also of a whole region. This could create problems with regard to competition, since barriers to entry could be raised substantially and collusion among economic agents facilitated.
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Опубликовано на портале: 04-01-2004
Peter Wehrheim
Boston: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2000, 155-179 с.
This paper discusses the interdependence between Russia’s agro-food sector and the rest of the economy. To address the impact of macroeconomic changes on agro-food markets in the transition period, a stylized computable general equilibrium model (CGE) has been constructed. The current data base of the model consists of five food industry sectors and two agricultural sectors among a total number of 17 sectors. The model is used for three simulations the results of which highlight the magnitude of macroeconomic repercussions stemming from changes in agriculture’s sector performance.
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Опубликовано на портале: 13-01-2004
Ред.: Peter Wehrheim, Klaus Frohberg, Евгения Викторовна Серова, Joachim Braun
Москва: Ин-т экономики переходного периода, 2001, 560 с.
Книга подготовлена на основе материалов международной конференции, посвященной вопросам трансформации агропродовольственного сектора России. Она охватывает широкий круг проблем: исходные условия для преобразований, принятые меры, их результаты, наиболее перспективные варианты дальнейшего продвижения по пути реформ. На основе межстрановых сопоставлений исследуются различные модели преобразований в агропромышленном секторе, выявляются причины их неодинаковой неэффективности. Анализируется воздействие политических решений и макроэкономических тенденций на эволюцию сектора. Рассматриваются вопросы межрегиональной интеграции, приватизации и реструктуризации сельскохозяйственных предприятий, развития личных подсобных хозяйств, институциональные аспекты функционирования агропродовольственных рынков и многие другие. Книга предназначена для научных работников и специалистов в области аграрной экономики, а также для всех интересующихся проблемами развития агропродовольственного сектора России.
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Опубликовано на портале: 13-02-2007
Jorgen W. Weibull
Cambridge, Mass: MIT Press, 1995, 287 с.
This text introduces current evolutionary game theory - where ideas from evolutionary biology and rationalistic economics meet - emphasizing the links between static and dynamic approaches and noncooperative game theory. Much of the text is devoted to the key concepts of evolutionary stability and replicator dynamics. The former highlights the role of mutations and the latter the mechanisms of selection. Moreover, set-valued static and dynamic stability concepts, as well as processes of social evolution, are discussed. Separate background chapters are devoted to noncooperative game theory and the theory of ordinary differential equations. There are examples throughout as well as individual chapter summaries.
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