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Всего публикаций в данном разделе: 2140

5 A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W XY Z

Опубликовано на портале: 26-09-2003
Книга содержит материалы научной конференции, посвященной полувековому юбилею выхода в свет фундаментальной работы английского экономиста, лауреата Нобелевской премии Рональда Гарри Коуза "Природа фирмы", в том числе: лекции Р.Г. Коуза, в которых он рассказывает историю создания этой статьи и делится мыслями по поводу отдельных ее аспектов и последующего влияния на развитие экономической науки; доклады других участников конференции и статьи, написанные под ее непосредственным впечатлением. Также приводится текст самой статьи "Природа фирмы" и Нобелевская лекция Р.Г. Коуза. Среди авторов - видные американские ученые Харолд Демсец, Оливер Уильямсон, Сидней Уинтер и др. Перед читателем открывается яркая картина научного поиска в сфере одного из направлений современной экономической теории - нового институционализма. Книга рекомендуется научным работникам, преподавателям, аспирантам и студентам, специализирующимся в области экономики, а также всем, кто интересуется новыми течениями экономической мысли.
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Опубликовано на портале: 30-08-2003
Williamson offers a truly contemporary approach to intermediate macroeconomics that builds macro models from micro principles - an approach consistent with how macro research is done today. Strong theoretical underpinnings are balanced by real-world applications in two features - Theory Confronts the Data and Macroeconomics in Action.
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Опубликовано на портале: 24-12-2003
Tassew Woldehanna
Durban, 2003
The impact of education on farmers. choice of activities and household welfare are modelled and estimated using farm household data for rural Ethiopia. We find that education has significant effects on household welfare. Schooling increases the adoption of new technologies and facilitates entry into highly profitable farm and non-farm activities, all of which may increase welfare and help farm households escape out of income poverty. An additional year of schooling in a household increases the welfare by 8.5 Percent. These findings provide a rationale to governments and donor organisations to include the expansion of rural schooling (through encouragement of parents to send their children to school) in their policy reform as a means of reducing material deprivation.
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Опубликовано на портале: 29-11-2003
Tassew Woldehanna, Arie Oskam
There is some confusion in the literature on the consumption behaviour of farmers. We try to clear up some of the issues surrounding this confusion by elaborating and testing a model. Euler equations have been derived from a constant relative risk aversion utility function for total consumption expenditure, household expenditure and other expenditure, which includes durable goods. According to a test of Euler equations, farm households are not simply optimising lifetime utility. Rather, these households follow simple consumption rules, strongly influenced by habit formation. In line with most of the literature, we find that farm households are not borrowing constrained in their consumption expenditures.
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Опубликовано на портале: 15-07-2004
This graduate text provides an intuitive but rigorous treatment of contemporary methods used in microeconometric research. The book makes clear that applied microeconometrics is about the estimation of marginal and treatment effects, and that parametric estimation is simply a means to this end. It also clarifies the distinction between causality and statistical association.
The book focuses specifically on cross section and panel data methods. Population assumptions are stated separately from sampling assumptions, leading to simple statements as well as to important insights. The unified approach to linear and nonlinear models and to cross section and panel data enables straightforward coverage of more advanced methods. The numerous end-of-chapter problems are an important component of the book. Some problems contain important points not fully described in the text, and others cover new ideas that can be analyzed using tools presented in the current and previous chapters.
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Опубликовано на портале: 15-07-2004
The modern approach of this text recognizes that econometrics has moved from a specialized mathematical description of economics to an applied interpretation based on empirical research techniques. It bridges the gap between the mechanics of econometrics and modern applications of econometrics by employing a systematic approach motivated by the major problems facing applied researchers today. Throughout the text, the emphasis on examples gives a concrete reality to economic relationships and allows treatment of interesting policy questions in a realistic and accessible framework.
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Опубликовано на портале: 30-11-2003
Rhung-Jieh Woo, Hsin-Yeh Tsai
Chrysanthemum is the primary flower Taiwan exports. However, the exports showed decreasing trend in recent years. The volumes exported were 826,596 kilograms in 2001, and Japan was the major market. About 99% of the chrysanthemum exports went to the Japanese market. Quarantine procedure is one of the measures Japanese government adopts to protect its domestic agricultural production. When chrysanthemum exports fail to pass the quarantine procedure, fumigation is required. According to statistics, the fumigated rate for Taiwan.s chrysanthemum exports to Japan reached 90Ѓ“ during 1996-1997, and was 70% in 1998. Fumigation could damage the quality and the reputation of Taiwan.s chrysanthemum exported. However, the degree of strictness of quarantine applied to the exports varied from time to time, hence caused the chrysanthemum exports facing with trade uncertainty. In addition, quality unevenness of exports, or standards that are not uniformly enforced could also cause trade uncertainty (not all exports are allowed to enter into the importing market).

It is suspected that the strictness of quarantine of a certain commodity is influenced by the domestic market conditions of supply and demand in Japan. During the seasons when Japan can produce enough chrysanthemum domestically, Japan might take stricter quarantine procedure to prevent foreign chrysanthemum exports from entering the Japanese domestic market. Trade uncertainty hence increased since not all of the amount exported each time is allowed to enter into Japan.s chrysanthemum market.

Since global agricultural trade liberalization is an unavoidable trend, non-tariff trade barriers are to be disciplined, it is expected that trade uncertainty of chrysanthemum trade between Taiwan and Japan will be reduced gradually during the process of agricultural trade liberalization in Japan.

The main objective of this study is to explore the possible influences of reducing trade uncertainty of chrysanthemum trade between Taiwan and Japan through quantitative analyses.
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Опубликовано на портале: 16-02-2005
Dean A. Worcester
Современный читатель, изучающий теорию ренты, должен будет провести различие по меньшей мере между тремя группами теоретиков: классиками, из которых Маршалл и Тауссиг представили наилучшую аргументацию, хотя вряд ли ее можно считать чисто рикардианской; неоклассиками, которые представляют не более чем простое повторение, если речь идет о тех, кто, подобно Уикстиду, Джевонсу, Давенпорту и др., оперирует определениями и большинством выводов Маршалла, но считают, что подход, основанный на анализе предельной производительности, превосходит остаточный подход; паретианцами, ведомыми Джоан Робинсон, К. Е. Боулдингом, Х. Д. Хендерсоном и др., придерживающихся фундаментально отличных концепций. Цель данной статьи состоит в том, чтобы, во-первых, описать вкратце те шаги, которые ведут к имеющейся в настоящей момент двусмысленности, во-вторых, дать несколько позитивных рекомендаций, чтобы свести к общему знаменателю разрозненные точки зрения, благодаря чему теория ренты приобретет новое содержание. Структура статьи такова: а) анализ логической необходимости и основных шагов, приведших к отказу от классической теории, согласно которой рента не влияет на рыночные цены товаров; б) как этот отказ привел к созданию двух других теорий ренты, из которых одна основывается на альтернативных затратах, а другая - на реальных затратах; в) что является условие для сохранения концептуальной взаимосвязи между двумя теориями?; г) как паретианское понятие ренты вносит многие новые детали в классическую и неоклассическую системы, но серьезно ослабляет значение термина "рента"; д) обоснование необходимости применения слова "рента" для выявления альтернативных затрат (или вознаграждения) единицы земли, как это определяется ниже, когда расчет ведется на уровне фирмы; е) необходимость нового термина, если понятия различных групп теоретиков должны быть объединены, - можно предложить "факторная прибыль"; ж) дополнительные причины для того, чтобы при определении ренты отдать предпочтение теории предельной производительности.
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Опубликовано на портале: 22-03-2005
Jan Yager
Москва: John Wiley & Sons, 1994, 288 с.
Книга рассматривает практические стороны деятельности бизнесмена: внешний вид, этикет личного общения с партнерами, клиентами и сослуживцами, правила ведения телефонного разговора и переписки, манера поведения за столом, интерьер рабочего помещения, подарки сотрудникам и партнерам и т.д. Отдельная глава отведена особенностях этикета в разных странах. Книга содержит богатый фактический материал, собранный в ходе анкетных опросов в американских фирмах, написана легким, занимательным языком.

Опубликовано на портале: 24-12-2003
Takashi Yamano, Harold Alderman, Luc Christiaensen
Durban, 2003
Over the past decades child stunting in Ethiopia has persisted at alarming rates. While the country experienced several droughts during this period, it also received enormous amounts of food aid, leading some to question the effectiveness of food aid in reducing child malnutrition. Using nationally representative household surveys from 1995-96 and controlling for program placement, we find that children between 6 and 24 months experienced about 0.9 cm less growth over a six-month period in communities where half the crop area was damaged compared to those without crop damage. Food aid was also found to have a substantial effect on growth of children in this age group. Moreover, on average the total amount of food aid appeared to be sufficient to protect children against plot damage, an encouraging sign that food aid can act as an effective insurance mechanism, though its cost effectiveness needs further investigation.
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Опубликовано на портале: 31-12-2003
Takashi Yamano, T. S. Jayne
Durban, 2003
Using a two-year panel of 1,422 Kenyan households surveyed in 1997 and 2000, we measure how working age adult mortality affects rural households’ size and composition, crop production, asset levels, and off-farm income. First, the paper uses adult mortality rates from available data on an HIV-negative sample to predict the proportion of deaths observed between 1997 and 2000 due to AIDS. Next, using a difference-indifferences estimation, we measure changes in outcomes between households afflicted by adult mortality vs. those not afflicted over the three-year survey period. The effects of adult mortality are highly sensitive to the gender and position of the deceased family member in the household. Households suffering the death of the head-of-household or spouse incurred a greater-than-one person loss in household size. The death of a male head-of-household between 16 and 59 years is associated with a 68% reduction in the net value of the household’s crop production. Female head-of-household or spouse mortality causes a greater decline in cereal area cultivated, while cash crops such as coffee, tea, and sugar are most adversely affected in households incurring the death of a male head-of-household. Off-farm income is also significantly affected by the death of the male head-of-household, but not in the case of other adult members. The death of other working-age family members is partially offset by an inflow of other individuals into the family and has less dramatic effects on the households’ agricultural production, assets, and off-farm income. The effects of adult mortality are also sensitive to the household’s initial asset levels. Lastly, there is little indication that households are able to recover quickly from the effects of working-age head-of-household adult mortality; the effects on crop and non-farm incomes do not decay at least over the three-year survey interval.
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Опубликовано на портале: 04-01-2004
Renata Yanbykh
Boston: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2000, 409-427 с.
This paper discusses the policies of agricultural finance and credit which have been implemented during the period of economic reform in Russia. An examination of various government measures reveals the pitfalls and shortcomings in their implementation. The main problem, however, lies in the fact that the government is attempting to remedy the consequences, rather than tackling the causes. The delay in introducing new methods of regulating agricultural finance and credit is aggravating the problem even more.
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Опубликовано на портале: 29-11-2003
C.M. Yates, T. Rehman
In order to respond to the current pressures on agriculture in the EU, the industry will have to go through fundamental structural change. Economic modelling provides the framework for understanding such changes. Mathematical programming is probably the most robust of all the modelling approaches notwithstanding several criticisms of the technique. Economists have long understood that profit maximisation is not the only objective of farmers. Although there are techniques to incorporate other objectives there does not exist a statistically rigorous method for estimating an appropriate objective functions. This problem also occurs at national and international levels of aggregation. This paper presents a new approach to modelling national and international production and trade through partial equilibrium and the use of a new development called positivistic mathematical programming. The nonlinear element of the objective function representing the partial equilibrium is estimated using past observations on supply, consumption and prices.

Further, the paper also presents an original parameterisation of the demand curve that allows perfect competition to be simulated within the framework of a single mathematical model. Such a methodology is an advancement over methods that are currently in use.
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Опубликовано на портале: 27-10-2003
Why are some nations wealthy while others are desperately poor? Despite the rapid advancement of technology and the free flow of information provided by computers, many poor nations are falling further behind the wealthy nations of the world. Why is it that these poorer nations cannot catch up? Until recently, economic theory provided limited help in answering these questions. But the New Institutional Economics, a rapidly growing body of economic theory, may provide the answers. Timothy Yeager's Institutions, Transition Economies, and Economic Development clearly explains the New Institutional Economics, and applies its tenets to the transition economies of Poland and Russia. Readers will gain a perspective on transition and developing economies that has never been explored before in a single book.
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Опубликовано на портале: 21-10-2003
Neoclassical economics assumes that people are highly rational and can reason their way through even the most complex economic problems. In Individual Strategy and Social Structure, Peyton Young argues for a more realistic view in which people have a limited understanding of their environment, are sometimes short-sighted, and occasionally act in perverse ways. He shows how the cumulative experiences of many such individuals coalesce over time into customs, norms, and institutions that govern economic and social life. He develops a theory that predicts how such institutions evolve and characterizes their welfare properties.
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