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Всего публикаций в данном разделе: 57

все А Б В Г Д Е Ж З И ЙК Л М Н О П Р С Т У Ф Х Ц Ч Ш Щ Э Ю Я
5 A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W XY Z

Опубликовано на портале: 12-12-2003
Steven J. Staal, Dannie Romney, Isabelle Baltenweck, Michael Waithaka
Durban, 2003
Although soil fertility is recognized as a primary constraint to agricultural production in developing countries, use of fertilizer in Sub-Saharan Africa is declining. Smallholder farmers still rely heavily on livestock manure for soil fertility management. To explore the determinants of soil fertility management practices, including both the use of cattle manure and inorganic fertilizer, data are used from a sample of 3,330 geo-referenced farm households across Central and Western Kenya. A bivariate probit model is applied to jointly examine the use of the two technologies. Particular attention is given to measures of location related to market access and agroclimate, which in the adoption literature have typically been addressed using crude proxies. To avoid such proxies, GIS-derived variables are integrated into the household decision model. Their use also allows the spatial prediction of uptake based on parameter estimates. The results show clearly the derived-demand nature of soil fertility services, based on markets for farm outputs. They also illustrate that supply of manure for soil fertility amendments is conditioned by demand for livestock products, especially milk. The integration of GIS-derived variables is shown to better estimate the effects of location than the usual measures employed, and offers scope to wider use in technology adoption research.
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Опубликовано на портале: 12-12-2003
Federico Sturzenegger, Mariano Tommasi, Allan Drazen, Raquel Fernandez, Dani Rodrik, Alberto Alesina, Raúl Laban, Vittorio Grilli, Guillermo Mondino, Andres Velasco, Joshua Aizenman, Shang-Jin Wei, Gerard Roland, Mathias Dewatripont, César Martinelli, Ricardo López Murphy, Alex Cukierman
Cambridge, Mass: MIT Press, 1998, 362 с.
In this book, Federico Sturzenegger and Mariano Tommasi propose formal models to answer some of the questions raised by the recent reform experience of many Latin American and East European countries. They apply common standards of analytical rigor to the study of economic and political behavior, assuming political agents to be rational and forward-looking, with expectations consistent with the properties of the underlying model.

The book is organized around three basic questions: first, why do reforms take place? Second, how are reforms implemented? And third, which candidates are most likely to undertake reform? Although most of the chapters deal with policy issues in developing economies, the findings also apply to areas such as social security and health care reform in industrialized countries.
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Опубликовано на портале: 29-03-2005
Klaus Wagner
The evaluation of the effects of different measures of the Austrian Agri-Environmental Programme (ÖPUL) on groundwater has to take into consideration various different dimensions of the analysis process. To begin with, there are EU guidelines for the evaluation that lay down questions, criteria and indicators that have to be answered. A second dimension of the evaluation process refers to the level of the different measures. Here we are dealing with single measures, bundles of measures for a specific objective and voluntary or obligatory combinations of measures. In addition, we have to consider that the measures concerning groundwater protection can have effects in a strong or weak, direct or indirect manner, in a selective or more extensive way. The time-related aspect of the effects is of enormous importance, not only in connection with the different programme variants (ÖPUL 95, ÖPUL 98 and ÖPUL 2000) but also in connection with the short-term or long-term effects of measures, depending also on local and regional characteristics. Of great importance is the spatial component in the analyses. In Austria, we have pore-groundwater regions where programmes for measuring the groundwater quality have been installed for many years. Of equal interest is the development of the groundwater quality in ÖPUL testing areas because there is detailed information available about the agricultural structures and the acceptance of ÖPUL measures. Finally, we have to observe the particular groundwater measure project regions, where a variety of special groundwater measures is available to farmers. These different types of regions frequently overlap each other but not always. Accordingly, the evaluation process is a multidimensional task that has to describe the relevance and the acceptance of the measures along with their potential and actual effects.
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Опубликовано на портале: 27-10-2003
This book applies an institutional perspective on transnational entrepreneurship to empirical investigations of transnational corporations from Hong Kong and Singapore. Henry Wai-chung Yeung argues that significant variations in institutional structures of home countries explain variations in the entrepreneurial endowments of prospective transnational business networks. This is illustrated by empirical data from two in-depth studies of over 300 TNCs from Hong Kong and Singapore and over 120 of their foreign affiliates in Asia.
Entrepreneurship and the Internationalisation of Asian Firms is a timely contribution to theoretical and empirical studies in international business and will be widely read by those interested in international business, industrial economics, organization studies, political economy, regional studies and economic geography.
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Опубликовано на портале: 31-12-2003
Edilegnaw Wale, Detlef Virchow
Durban, 2003
Crop genetic resources are the building blocks of sustainable agricultural development due to their relevance not only as inputs for variety development but also as indigenous crop insurance mechanisms through traditional variety portfolio management. Their continuous survival is, however, threatened by natural and human driven factors. This threat has induced the need for designing conservation measures. Among the in situ and ex situ conservation options available to conserve crop genetic resources, on-farm conservation has recently attracted enormous attention. To make this option operational, placing incentives (that link conservation with utilization) and removal of perverse incentives are believed to be crucial so that landraces of no immediate interest to farmers can be conserved.

However, before designing sound incentives and/or removing perverse incentives, we have to understand farmers. motives for managing a portfolio of traditional varieties.

To address our objective, we have adopted a utility based model that considers on-farm diversity as a positive externality of farmers. livelihood decisions. Accordingly, on-farm diversity is considered as the derived outcome of farmers. revealed preferences subject to their concerns and constraints. To empirically test the relationships, a Poisson regression model is estimated using rural household survey data collected from 198 sorghum growing farmers in East Ethiopia. The results have shown the most important diversity promoting factors and those factors detaching the link between farmers’ ‘survival first’ motives and their spillover effects on sorghum diversity. Based on the results, the paper concludes outlining the policy implications of the findings.
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Опубликовано на портале: 04-01-2004
Jurgen Wandel
Boston: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2000, 359-381 с.
By means of the transaction cost theory, the study identifies the motives for vertical integration or coordination in the Russian agro-food sector and assesses the forms of vertical integration developed so far. One can distinguish between state-initiated integration forms and such initiated by the economic agents themselves. Whereas the aim of the former is to dilute assumed market power of the food industry, uncertainty about market partners regarding reliable supply and marketing conditions and especially the fulfillment of payment obligation is the main motive for the latter. Often the chosen forms of vertical integration or cooperation not only comprise enterprises of the whole marketing chain, but also of a whole region. This could create problems with regard to competition, since barriers to entry could be raised substantially and collusion among economic agents facilitated.
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Опубликовано на портале: 04-01-2004
Peter Wehrheim
Boston: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2000, 155-179 с.
This paper discusses the interdependence between Russia’s agro-food sector and the rest of the economy. To address the impact of macroeconomic changes on agro-food markets in the transition period, a stylized computable general equilibrium model (CGE) has been constructed. The current data base of the model consists of five food industry sectors and two agricultural sectors among a total number of 17 sectors. The model is used for three simulations the results of which highlight the magnitude of macroeconomic repercussions stemming from changes in agriculture’s sector performance.
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Опубликовано на портале: 13-02-2007
Jorgen W. Weibull
Cambridge, Mass: MIT Press, 1995, 287 с.
This text introduces current evolutionary game theory - where ideas from evolutionary biology and rationalistic economics meet - emphasizing the links between static and dynamic approaches and noncooperative game theory. Much of the text is devoted to the key concepts of evolutionary stability and replicator dynamics. The former highlights the role of mutations and the latter the mechanisms of selection. Moreover, set-valued static and dynamic stability concepts, as well as processes of social evolution, are discussed. Separate background chapters are devoted to noncooperative game theory and the theory of ordinary differential equations. There are examples throughout as well as individual chapter summaries.
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Опубликовано на портале: 24-12-2003
Katinka Weinberger
Durban, 2003
Micronutrient malnutrition, particularly of iron, is widespread on the South Asian subcontinent and economic losses due to reduced productivity of afflicted population groups are believed to be substantial.

This paper examines the impact of micronutrient intake on productivity of household engaged in agricultural labor in India by applying a two-stage least squares (2SLS) estimation technique. The micronutrient under investigation is iron. The results indicate that productivity, measured in wages is indeed affected through insufficient intake, and that wages would on average be 5 to 17.3 percent higher, if households would achieve recommended intake levels of the micronutrient discussed here. The results demonstrate that policy interventions that aim at enhancing micronutrient intake can be regarded as investments in improved productivity and higher household incomes. Enhancing micronutrient intake will contribute significantly to overall economic growth and development.
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Опубликовано на портале: 29-11-2003
Christoph Weiss, Wolfgang Briglauer
This paper examines the impact of various farm and household characteristics (such as farm size, the off-farm employment status, the farm operator's age and schooling and the number of family members) on the level as well as the dynamics of on-farm diversification. Using linked census data for Upper-Austria from 1980, 1985 and 1990 we provide evidence that smaller farms are more specialised and also tend to increase the degree of specialisation over time more quickly than large farms. A significantly lower degree of diversification (higher degree of specialisation) as well as a stronger reduction in diversification over time is also reported for businesses operated by older, less educated, part-time farm operators. The analysis of diversification dynamics also suggests that (a) farms adjust to changes in their environment by steadily approaching their long-run equilibrium level of diversification ( β-convergence), and (b) the variance of the diversification distribution declines over time (σ-convergence).
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Опубликовано на портале: 25-01-2003
Hartmut Wendt, Andreas Heigl
Berlin: BiB, 2000
Tagung des Arbeitskreises "Migration Integration Minderheiten" der Deutschen Gesellschaft fьr Bevцlkerungswissenschaft (DGBw) fand im Oktober 1999 in Berlin statt. Die Organisatoren hatten sich zum Ziel gesetzt, nach einer thematischen Ьberblicksveranstaltung im Vorjahr (verцffentlicht in den Materialien zur Bevцlkerungswissenschaft, Band 94) das Themenfeld der Integration zu behandeln und luden dazu gezielt Referenten ein, um aus der Sicht ihrer Disziplin Probleme und Chancen der Integration von Zuwanderungspopulationen zu beleuchten. Dabei sollten bewusst die nationalen Grenzen ьberschritten werden um vergleichende Aspekte der Integrationsprozesse zu behandeln. Mit der Gewinnung von Referenten aus Frankreich und der Schweiz ist dies auch ein Stьck weit gelungen.Das Einleitungsreferat von Hartmut Wendt erörtert bezugnehmend auf die aktuelle politische Diskussion und ausgehend von der demographischen Situation in Deutschland - die Notwendigkeit einer regulierten Zuwanderung, die auch stets die Integration der Einwanderer zu implizieren hat. Der Beitrag der Ausländerbeauftragten von Berlin, Frau Barbara John, stellt das Berliner Konzept der Ausländerintegration vor. Sie veranschaulicht am Beispiel Berlin Integrationsmaßnahmen, die den Einstieg in den Arbeitsmarkt erleichtern und ein kulturelles Miteinander sowie die Teilhabe am politischen Leben ermöglichen. Hartmut Häußermann postuliert aus der Sicht des Stadtsoziologen eine Krise der "europäischen Stadt" und diskutiert neue bzw. "vormoderne" Formen urbaner Integration. Er erörtert zwei theoretische Ansätze der Integration (Simmel und Park) und hebt abschließend die Bedeutung der sozialen Integration für die Zukunft der Stadt hervor. Die empirisch ausgerichtete Analyse von Alois Weidacher ist auf die soziokulturellen und politischen Orientierungen ausgewählter ethnischer Gruppen fokussiert und kommt zu dem Schluss, dass eine hohe Ähnlichkeit in politischen Einstellungen der Befragten unterschiedlicher Nationalitäten festzustellen ist, die sich insbesondere in der Zustimmung zu demokratischen Prinzipien einer politischen Ordnung zeigen würde. Allerdings sind Mehraufwendungen gerade im Bildungsbereich notwendig, um eine statusgleiche Eingliederung für die Kinder von Migrantenfamilien zu ermöglichen. Die Integration der Türken in Deutschland ist das Thema des Beitrages von Andreas Goldberg. Die Ergebnisse einer Telefonbefragung von türkischstämmigen Migranten weisen auf die Widersprüchlichkeit, ja Gegensätzlichkeit der Ergebnisse der Integrationsprozesse hin. Während auf der negativen Seite vor allem die schlechte Bildungs- und Ausbildungssituation und damit der niedrige sozioökonomische Status stehen, sind die ausgeprägten Kontakte der Türken zu Deutschen sowie die hohe Zahl an Einbürgerungsinteressierten als positive Aspekte der Integration zu werten. Oliver Hämming stellt die Ergebnisse einer repräsentativen Telefonbefragung unter türkischen und italienischen jungen Erwachsenen der zweiten Ausländergeneration sowie schweizerischer junger Erwachsener im Kanton Zürich vor. Auch hier wird deutlich, dass junge Erwachsene der zweiten Einwanderergeneration im Vergleich mit gleichaltrigen "Einheimischen" schlechter abschneiden. Gerade die zweite Ausländergeneration ist als strukturell unterprivilegiert und desintegriert zu bezeichnen. Die Folge ist erhöhte individuelle Anomie, die mit Statusfrustration, Deprivation sowie normativer Desorientierung einhergeht und sich in Aggressivität, Depressivität sowie geringem Selbstwertgefühl äußert. Einen interessanten Einblick in das Verhältnis Frankreichs zu seinen Immigranten gewährt Frau Anne Dumasy. Unter dem Aspekt eines Vergleichs zwischen Frankreich und Deutschland wird das französische Staatsbürgerschaftsrecht in seiner rechtsgeschichtlichen Tradition erläutert. Trotz Staatsbürgerschaft seit 1973 wird die Staatsbürgerschaft automatisch bei der Geburt gewährt sind Ausländer, und hier wiederum insbesondere Maghrebiner (die so genannten "Beurs"), oft Zielgruppe der Ausgrenzung. Die Folgen dieser Ausgrenzung, die Gewalt in den Vorstädten (La violence urbaine) werden anschaulich geschildert.

Опубликовано на портале: 29-03-2005
Heinz Wendt, Josef Efken, Inge Uetrecht, Albert Regine
Beside other measures the framework of regulation 1257 (EC)/1999 offered the possibility to implement promotion schemes in food processing and marketing (Art. 25-28). The regulation also claims an evaluation of such measures geared to guidelines formulated through the EUCommission for this purpose. The EU, therefore, has been defined two types of common evaluation questions: chapter specific questions and cross cutting questions. In order to answer these questions a methodological IT-based approach and questionnaire was developed. The methodological approach is presented in detail and also important factors affecting the process of implementation to get sufficient support throughout all stages and authorities involved. First results indicate the intentions of the investors so far and mainly reflect the potential of the database gained through the questionnaire such as detailed breakdown of aims of the supported investments, indicators for competitiveness and a first attempt to get an aggregate measure to assess envisaged aims.
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Опубликовано на портале: 31-12-2003
Edwin G. West
USA: Liberty Fund, 1994, "3rd ed.", 364 с.
Originally published in 1965, the questions raised in this book concerning state-run education have grown immeasurably in urgency and intensity.

The book re-examines the role of government in education, and challenges the fundamental statist assumption that the state is best able to provide an education for the general population. The author explores the views on education on the 19th-century British reformers and classical economists, who argued the necessity of state education. West demonstrates that by the Foster Act of 1870 the state system of education was superimposed over successful private efforts, thereby suppressing an emerging and increasingly robust structure of private, voluntary and competitive education funded by families, churches and philanthropies. This new and expanded edition addresses the American situation in education, applying the lessons learned from the study of British institutions. It also broadens their application from education to the conduct of democracy as a political system.

Опубликовано на портале: 27-10-2003
This book focuses on China's rural industries, offering an innovative, theoretical framework to explain insitutional change. Susan Whiting explores the complex interactions of individuals, institutions, and the broader political economy to examine variation and change in property rights and extractive institutions in China's rural industrial sector. Whiting explains why public ownership predominated during the early years of reform and why privatization is now taking place. This book will be of interest not only to students and scholars of Chinese economic development, but also of comparative politics and political economy more generally.
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Опубликовано на портале: 21-10-2003
Mistrust, argues John O. Whitney, forments meddling corporate bureaucracies that police even the most trivial transactions-squelching innovation and dragging down revenues with crippling administrative overhead. It discourages sales from talking to marketing, marketing to manufacturing, or manufacturing to design. (Or any of them talking to customers of suppliers.) And it provokes harassed managers to endlessly massage their budget and forecast numbers... and their superiors to doubt the results they submit.
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