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Всего публикаций в данном разделе: 147

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5 A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W XY Z

Опубликовано на портале: 04-01-2004
Peter Berck, David Bigman
Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1993, 400 с.
Сборник работ по теме продовольственной безопасности в развивающихся странах. Рассматриваются проблемы недоедания, бедности, состояния предложения и спроса на продовольствие, политика государств и проведение альтернативные политических мер на микро- и макро- уровнях.

Опубликовано на портале: 30-11-2003
Ernst Berg
This paper investigates the farm level impacts of multiple peril yield and revenue insurance in an expected value-variance framework. The analysis is conducted using stochastic simulation jointly with numerical optimisation. Simulation is used to compute the means and variances of revenues as affected by the insurance schemes under consideration. In a second step these results are incorporated in a whole-farm programming approach, which optimises a portfolio that consists of crop production and insurance activities. The results of a case study indicate that from the farmer's point of view there is an incentive to buy multiple peril crop insurance, because it significantly reduces the variability of income. The risk reduction through insurance in turn leads to a specialisation of the production program. The farm level benefit of crop insurance strongly depends on the decision maker's degree of risk aversion. Furthermore, risk free parts of the total income reduce the economic attractiveness of insurance schemes. This applies e.g. to the area payments under the European agricultural policy, which therefore limit the potential demand for crop insurance.
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Опубликовано на портале: 28-11-2003
Miriam E. Berges, Karina S. Casellas
The purpose of this paper is to provide some microeconomics tools to discuss and evaluate public policies that imply transfers of income from the public sector to the poor and their impact on their food demand and calories and nutrient intakes. This study is concerned with the differences in subsistence expenditures, own-price elasticities and income elasticities for two households groups segmented by income: those people below the poverty guideline and those above it. The attention of our research is focused on a demand system for all food groups included in a National Consumption Survey and examines the household food consumption behavior by partitioning the sample. A complete system of demand equations, the Linear Expenditure System (LES), has been used due to its relative empirical expediency. Some additional econometric techniques to correct the bias in the parameter estimates were also applied because of the large number of zero observations in the data. Preliminary estimations following the procedure suggested in the Park et al. (1996) paper, gave some results that they were not as good as we expected and we finally use an alternative one based on Shonkwiler and Yen (1999).
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Опубликовано на портале: 18-01-2003
Jan Marc Berk
Boston: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2000
Standard macroeconomic monographs often discuss the mechanism of monetary transmission, usually ending by highlighting the complexities and uncertainties involved in this mechanism. Conversely, The Preparation of Monetary Policy takes these uncertainties as a starting point, analytically investigating their nature and spelling out their consequences for the monetary policy maker. The second innovative aspect of this book is its focus on policy preparation instead of well-covered topics such as monetary policy strategy, tactics, and implementation. Thirdly, a general, multi-model framework for preparing monetary policy is proposed, which is illustrated by case studies stressing the role of international economic linkages and of expectations. Written in a self-contained fashion, these case studies are of interest by themselves. The book is written for an audience that is interested in the art and science of monetary policy making, which includes central bankers, academics, and (graduate) students in the field of monetary economics, macroeconomics, international economics and finance.

Опубликовано на портале: 13-01-2004
Daniel Berkowitz, David N. DeJong
Berlin, 2000
In previous work BERKOWITZ and DEJONG, used regional commodity-price data covering the period 1993-96 to document the existence of an internal economic border that divides Russia into two distinct economic regions: the ‘Red Belt’ and the ‘rest of Russia’. The Red Belt represents a group of regions that have broadly resisted the implementation of federally initiated market reforms. Here, we extend this work by quantifying two economic implications of this internal border. First, we show that the Red-Belt border has limited the transmission of price signals to regions within the Red Belt. Second, we show that regions within the Red Belt have experienced extremely poor growth performances relative to Russia as a whole.
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Опубликовано на портале: 01-09-2003
Ben S. Bernanke, Thomas Laubach, Frederic S. Mishkin, Adam S. Posen
Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2001
Inflation Targeting is a groundbreaking study that will have a major impact on the debate over the right monetary strategy for the coming decades. As a unique comparative study of what central banks actually do in different countries around the world, this book will also be invaluable to anyone interested in how economic policy is made.
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Опубликовано на портале: 29-11-2003
Carlo Bernini Carri, Maria Sassi
The paper explores the phenomenon of agricultural convergence on regional base within the EU economic cohesion that has always been and still remains one of the mainstay of the EU building process (EU, 1997). A crucial issue is the theoretical and empirical testing of a catching up process, that is a faster growth of the poor countries (regions) than that of the rich ones. The literature on this topic has strengthened recently, but it is mainly referred to economic convergence undermining the importance of the process in the agricultural sector. The relevance mainly refers to the role of the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP). It is the only European policy thought and managed at overnational level with the specific object to overcome the deep agricultural structural disparities within the Member States. This process has been considered fundamental to reach the agricultural and thus economic European integration. Moreover, the interrelationship (if any) between agricultural and economic convergence is of potential interest given that the nature of structural change within agriculture is likely to shaped by broader economic conditions (especially the state of local labour markets).

Thus, the paper first explores the process of agricultural and economic convergence using EU data on real Gross Domestic Product per capita and real Gross Agricultural Value Added per agricultural Work Unit at the level of NUTS 2 regions for 1982,1986 and 1994. Then, it analyses whether: - The intensity of the convergence process in the agricultural sector has been strong enough to promote a decrease in the gap between the agricultural and the economic performance; - The agricultural and economic process of convergence are related on territorial base. Policy implications are not analysed because data at regional level are not available. In literature, the results of testing convergence hypothesis are mixed and strongly dependent on the methodologies applied, the level of analysis, and the explanatory variables adopted (Bernini Carri, Sassi, 1998).
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Опубликовано на портале: 01-10-2003
Эта удивительная статья была написана в 1738 г. швейцарским математиком и естествоиспытателем Даниилом Бернулли, который известен тем, что предложил решение так называемого "санкт-петербургского парадокса", использовав гипотезу об убывающей предельной полезности дохода. В этой статье предвосхищены все основные положения современной теории полезности и потребления в условиях неопределенности, которые был потом развиты математиками и экономистами 20 века (Дж. фон Нейманом, О. Моргентшерном, М. Фридменом и другими).
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Опубликовано на портале: 26-02-2004
В этом уникальном исследовании, посвященном роли риска в нашем обществе, Питер Бернстайн доказывает, что освоение методов оценки риска и контроля над ним является одной из главных особенностей нашего времени, отличающих его от более ранних эпох. Риск — это скорее выбор, нежели жребий. Действия, которые мы должны предпринять в зависимости от имеющейся у нас свободы выбора, — вот что такое риск на самом деле. Чтобы судить о том, насколько современные методы манипулирования с риском являются благом или злом, следует изучить всю историю вопроса с самого начала. В книге рассказывается о плеяде мыслителей, чья замечательная проницательность помогает нам научиться ставить будущее на службу настоящему. Показав миру, как надо понимать и измерять риск и оценивать его последствия, они превратили деятельность в условиях риска в один из важнейших катализаторов прогресса современного западного общества. Изменение отношения к риску, обусловленное их достижениями, стимулировало страсть человека к игре и коммерческому риску, способствуя подъему качества жизни и технологическому прогрессу. "Против богов" — одна из редких книг, превращающих ознакомление с наиболее сложными проблемами нашего времени в поистине упоительное чтение.

Книга снабжена подробной библиографией и указателями. Предназначена как для экономистов, предпринимателей, историков науки, так и для широкого круга читателей.
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Опубликовано на портале: 07-10-2008
Steven T. Berry, Peter C. Reiss
Amsterdam: Elsevier Science, 2007
This chapter surveys empirical models of market structure. We pay particular attention to equilibrium models that interpret cross-sectional variation in the number of firms or firm turnover rates. We begin by discussing what economists can in principle learn from models with homogeneous potential entrants. We then turn to models with heterogeneous firms. In the process, we review applications that analyze market structure in airline, retail, professional, auction, lodging, and broadcasting markets. We conclude with a summary of more recent models that incorporate incomplete information, “set identified” parameters, and dynamics.
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Опубликовано на портале: 14-10-2003
This comprehensive book applies modern economic principles to study a firm's strategic position. The book integrates insights from the theory of the firm, industrial organization and strategy research while building upon a strong theoretical and empirical foundation familiar to academics working in economics and strategy. The broad sweep of modern economics and strategy research is organized and presented in an appealing format. Many topics dovetail with important current research agendas. In this edition, the authors have completely reworked their discussions of a number of difficult topics, such as "make or buy fallacies", competitor identification, commitment, and strategic positioning. They also introduce a "make or buy issue tree" and an "industry analysis checklist" that readers should find very useful when assessing make or buy decisions and performing five forces analyses.
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Опубликовано на портале: 20-01-2003
David Bevan, Paul Collier, Jan Willem Gunning
New York: Oxford University Press, 1994
This book, a companion volume to Peasants and Governments by the same authors (OUP, 1990), develops macroeconomic theory for small open economies which are characterized by the sort of restrictions which make much of existing neoclassical economics inapplicable to developing countries. The applicability of this theory is demonstrated in an analysis of two temporary trade shocks in Africa.
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Опубликовано на портале: 29-11-2003
Dirk J. Bezemer
The replacement of wage-labour farms by family farms in Central and Eastern Europe during the transformation has been more limited than was initially expected. In this paper a formal framework is developed in order to analyse the behaviour of family farms and socialist-style farms in the presence of risk, given the typical post-socialist environment. Management incentives, ownership structure, lump-sum transfers and consumption choices are shown to have the potential to limit the size of family farms relative to socialist-style farms. The hypotheses are tested with survey data collected by the author in the Czech Republic.
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Опубликовано на портале: 30-11-2003
Maria Bielza, Alberto Garrido, Jose M. Sumpsi
Various forms of revenue insurance have been applied in Canada and in the US with relative success. In this paper different combinations of traditional agricultural policies and revenue and yield insurance are analysed for the Spanish olive oil sector. Taking a database containing about half million Spanish olive growers during 8 campaigns, five possible policies are studied and the results are examined according to different criteria including average revenue and its variability, growers utility gains, taxpayers cost and the transfer efficiency of support. The policies analysed are:
(1) non-intervention;
(2) the policy currently in force in Spain that combines a production aid with a yield insurance;
(3) a revenue insurance, only;
(4) revenue insurance combined with a production aid; and
(5) an aid per tree in combination with revenue insurance.

The methodology is based on Monte-Carlo simulations performed on about 100 groups of growers that have been grouped according to their expected yields and variability. Assuming and estimating olive oil price and yields correlations for each group of growers, the analysis allows for consistent policy comparisons at a very disaggregate level. Using the results for all analysed groups, policies are ranked based on the above criteria at the provincial and national levels. Results show that the current regime of EU production aids of olive oil eliminates the advantage of extending the current yield insurance to a revenue insurance. It is also shown that the level of support delivered by production aids cannot be reached with revenue insurance even with completely subsidised premiums. Finally, it is shown that the policy that combines tree aids with revenue insurance exhibits good results for all examining criteria.
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Опубликовано на портале: 17-09-2004
Harold Jr. Bierman, Seymour Smidt
New Jersey: Prentice-Hall, 1992
This book addresses an ongoing challenge for business professionals and economists: how to allocate available financial resources among many possible investment projects.
Этот учебник дает ясную и четкую концепцию оценки эффективности инвестиционных проектов.
В книге представлены способы сравнения выгодности различных вариантов вложения капитала. Простой и надежный метод расчета позволяет оценивать денежную сторону планируемых проектов. Как действовать в условиях инфляции, высоких налогов и нехватки средств у предприятия?
Учебник предназначен для студентов - будущих специалистов по управлению производством, финансами, инвестициями. Он также полезен менеджерам любого уровня и управляющим инвестициями
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