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Всего публикаций в данном разделе: 88

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Опубликовано на портале: 29-11-2003
Yasuo Ohe
Understanding the demand profile of rural tourism is a necessary condition for the successful diversification of any rural economy. Although descriptive analyses have been conducted on this issue, a more generalized framework is required that allows us to explore economic analyses. This paper evaluates the leisure behavior of households that have a preference for rural tourism in Japan. First, we give conceptual consideration to the notion that leisure behavior should be regarded as a form of a home production and explain that households that undertake rural tourism have undergone an upward shift in the home production function to realize a higher utility level. We propose that a preference for rural recreation causes this shift by improving the efficiency of the home production of leisure. Second, as an actual behavior of rural tourism, the characteristics of visitors to pick-your-own farms were statistically tested using data from a nation-wide survey on tourism. Finally, the rural preference function was estimated. The results revealed that the profile of households showing a preference for rural tourism demonstrated both up-market and niche market characteristics, which mirrored findings in European countries emphasizing the importance of a higher academic background, stronger orientation towards outdoor recreation, and greater discrimination with respect to the quality of services and goods received. Preference for rural recreation can be enhanced through the provision of authentic, high quality service and goods and the preservation of the rural environment. Therefore, there will be an increased demand for a farm policy that integrates both agricultural and rural measures.
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Опубликовано на портале: 03-01-2004
Ред.: Thyrele Robertson, Burton C. English, Robert Alexander
Iowa: Blackwell Publishing Company, 1998, 420 с.
Книга является сборником исследовательских работ, представленных на 30й международной конференции атлантического экономического общества. Акцент уделяется проблематике эффективного использования природных ресурсов в сельском хозяйстве, моделированию влияния различных программ и политики на состояние природных ресурсов и на поведение экономических агентов на различных уровнях : фирмы, местном, региональном, национальном.
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Опубликовано на портале: 26-02-2003
Richard Blundell, Dias Monica Costa, Costas Meghir, John Van Reenen
Cтатья посвящена оценке государственной программы "Новое предложение для безработной молодежи"по содействию занятости в Англии на основе данных панельного исследования 1982 - 1999 гг.
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Опубликовано на портале: 31-03-2005
Gerhard Hovorka
The landscape in Austria is characterised by the high proportion of less-favoured areas (LFA). These cover 81 % of the total Austrian land area. Most is classified as mountain area (70%) with a small part classified as other types of less-favoured area. Mountain farming has the key role in safeguarding the sensitive eco-system and thereby the multifunctional landscape and the general living and working space. The mountain area still possess a high environmental quality and environmentally friendly agriculture and forestry extends over most of the mountain area. This is also important for tourism, which plays a major role in the Austrian economy. Austria has gained considerable experience with mountain farming subsidies and regional programmes specific to the mountain area over recent decades. Since the early 1970s a differentiated classification system has been the basis for defining support levels for mountain farmers. A revised classification system has been applied since 2001. The dominant objective for mountain farming policy is to maintain an agricultural and forestry sector based on environmental principles and small family farms. Under the 2000 – 2006 Rural Development Programme major alterations to the support scheme have been undertaken and support levels have been improved considerably for LFA farmers, and particularly for mountain farmers. The ex-ante evaluation and the mid-term evaluation were undertaken by the Federal Institute for Less-Favoured and Mountainous Areas in Vienna. This paper addresses key questions regarding the evaluation and the achievements of the new compensatory allowances schemes in Austria and will focus on the extent to which it meets the main objectives for mountain areas and other less favoured areas. The complementary contributions of other RDP measures, such as the agri-environmental programme to fulfil the main objectives, will also be discussed. In addition, a review of less–favoured-area payments of some other EU member states will be presented.
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Опубликовано на портале: 29-03-2005
Klaus Wagner
The evaluation of the effects of different measures of the Austrian Agri-Environmental Programme (ÖPUL) on groundwater has to take into consideration various different dimensions of the analysis process. To begin with, there are EU guidelines for the evaluation that lay down questions, criteria and indicators that have to be answered. A second dimension of the evaluation process refers to the level of the different measures. Here we are dealing with single measures, bundles of measures for a specific objective and voluntary or obligatory combinations of measures. In addition, we have to consider that the measures concerning groundwater protection can have effects in a strong or weak, direct or indirect manner, in a selective or more extensive way. The time-related aspect of the effects is of enormous importance, not only in connection with the different programme variants (ÖPUL 95, ÖPUL 98 and ÖPUL 2000) but also in connection with the short-term or long-term effects of measures, depending also on local and regional characteristics. Of great importance is the spatial component in the analyses. In Austria, we have pore-groundwater regions where programmes for measuring the groundwater quality have been installed for many years. Of equal interest is the development of the groundwater quality in ÖPUL testing areas because there is detailed information available about the agricultural structures and the acceptance of ÖPUL measures. Finally, we have to observe the particular groundwater measure project regions, where a variety of special groundwater measures is available to farmers. These different types of regions frequently overlap each other but not always. Accordingly, the evaluation process is a multidimensional task that has to describe the relevance and the acceptance of the measures along with their potential and actual effects.
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Опубликовано на портале: 31-08-2003
Geoffrey M. Hodgson
Northampton: Edward Elgar, 2000
Geoff Hodgsons innovative and important new book is about the future of economics as a viable discipline. It examines not only evolutionary economics but the development of economic theory during the twentieth century. The book reflects on the origins and consequences of the narrowing and increasing irrelevance of mainstream economics, suggesting that it will be inadequate to cope with the complex ideas of the new millennium.
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Опубликовано на портале: 13-02-2007
Jorgen W. Weibull
Cambridge, Mass: MIT Press, 1995, 287 с.
This text introduces current evolutionary game theory - where ideas from evolutionary biology and rationalistic economics meet - emphasizing the links between static and dynamic approaches and noncooperative game theory. Much of the text is devoted to the key concepts of evolutionary stability and replicator dynamics. The former highlights the role of mutations and the latter the mechanisms of selection. Moreover, set-valued static and dynamic stability concepts, as well as processes of social evolution, are discussed. Separate background chapters are devoted to noncooperative game theory and the theory of ordinary differential equations. There are examples throughout as well as individual chapter summaries.
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Опубликовано на портале: 13-02-2007
Fernando Vega-Redondo
New York: Oxford University Press, 1996, 209 с.
The book covers the modern developments in Evolutionary Game Theory, with an emphasis on economic contexts and applications. It begins with the basic ideas as they originated within the field of theoretical biology, focusing on the core notions of Evolutionarily Stable Strategy and Replicator Dynamics. Both the static and dynamic approaches of this biological literature are presented in detail, and the general analysis illustrated with numerous examples. It then proceeds to the formulation of a theoretical framework that is suitable for the study of social and economic phenomena from an evolutionary perspective. After a discussion of strictly deterministic dynamic models, stochastic perturbations are introduced in order to account for the social- and individual-based sources of ‘noise’ (including aggregate shocks, agents’ experimentation, and population renewal), which play an important role in evolutionary processes.Evolutionary Theory has become one of the leading approaches to understanding bounded rationality, learning, and change in complex social environments. The recent boom experienced by this discipline makes this book's systematic presentation of its fundamental contributions essential reading for any newcomer to the field. In addition, new avenues of research are suggested, and plentiful examples illustrate the theory's potential applications.
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Опубликовано на портале: 25-01-2003
Christos Papazoglou, Eric Pentecost
Hampshire: Palgrave Macmillan, 2001
This book, based upon a large-scale research project, examines alternative types of exchange rate policies being pursued and the changing nature of exchange rate policy during the transition process in four countries, Slovenia, Bulgaria, Poland and the Czech Republic. The book brings together a series of original contributions by country experts and draws out some common themes and over-arching policy implications for the operation of exchange rate policy in the transition process.
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Опубликовано на портале: 31-03-2005
Riccardo Scarpa, Laura Viganò, Davide Bortolozzo
A farmer’s choice to part-take into an on farm investment programme can be modelled as a discrete choice. The idea of this paper is to test the possibility of using discrete choice models in the field of the evaluation of structural policies. Farmers choose to take part into agricultural programmes according to their preferences, their structural type and their economic environment. Adhesion to a voluntary scheme or policy can be cast as a discrete choice problem. Hence, discrete choice models are adequate to describe probability of choice, especially against a framework of utility maximization. First, we want to explore if the choice of investing in schemes supported by EAGGF depends on farms’ characteristics, such as Used Agricultural Area, Standard Gross Margin, Farm type, Possession of lands, Form of Farm Management, Standard Work Unit, class of European Size Unit, Fixed costs, etc.. We use is the binomial logit model to explain the probability of making an on-farm investment with regard to Italian Central and Northern Regions. The estimation of such a model allows us to identify the determinants of such a decision. We also use discrete choice analysis to identify the significant determinants of the probability of selection of on-farm investment across 12 investment categories within the Regulation (EC) No 950/97. These include – amongst others – land purchase, system for refusal treatment, land improvement, agricultural machinery, agricultural and non-agricultural farm buildings, land improvements, permanent cultivations etc. We find such an approach to be insightful on the basis of data from the Italian RICA business farm survey, and hence propose to develop it further.
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Опубликовано на портале: 30-12-2003
Guy Blaise Nkamleu, Jim Gokowski, Harounan Kazianga
Durban, 2003
This paper examines changes in agricultural productivity in 10 Sub-saharan countries. The relative performance of agricultural sector was gauged using data envelopment analysis. From a panel data set of the 10 countries which included the 28-year period 1972-1999, mathematical programming methods were used to measure Malmquist indexes of total factor productivity. It was found that, during that period, total factor productivity have experienced a negative evolution in sample countries. A decomposition of those measures suggest that, most of the weak performance of factors productivity is attributable more to technological change than technical efficiency change. French-speaking countries better succeeded to raise their productivity than English-speaking countries do. In addition, it have been found that Sahelian countries failed to rise their agricultural productivity compared to forest countries where a positive evolution have been detected.
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Опубликовано на портале: 28-11-2003
A. Gracia, Mehrez Ameur
Agrifood firms operate in a more global, saturated and competitive market than other manufacturing firms, and they have smaller size. These firms certainly need to define appropriate strategies related to accessing the international market and to investing in innovative activities. This two decisions are related to firms size because as Krugman states international trade is not only explained by differences in technology between countries but also by firms’ desire to extend their sales in foreign markets to take advantage of the economies of scales. Therefore, it seems to exist a simultaneous relation between firm size, exports and innovative activities. The aim of this paper is to analyse agrifood firms’ decisions on these three strategies: export behaviour, innovative activities and firm’s size in comparison to other manufacturing firms using some modification from the simultaneous model defined by Entorf and Pohlmeier. The study is focused on the Spanish manufactured firms taking special attention to the agri-food ones. Data come from a National Survey (“Encuesta de Estrategias Empresariales”) carried out by the “Fundación Empresa Pública”) from 1990. Results indicate that agri-food manufacturing firms decision process related to their size, export share and innovative activities is not a simultaneous process. Moreover, some differences with the rest of manufactured firms have been detected, In particular, agri-food firms have lower export shares, lower size and lower innovation intensity than Spanish firms in other manufacturing sectors. Spanish firms decision process on strategic variables (size, export share and innovation) is characterized by a recursive decision process where firms firstly decide export intensity, secondly, they decide their size or total sales depending on the previous decision and, finally, they decide their innovative intensity depending on the last two.
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Опубликовано на портале: 06-10-2003
Andreas Papandreou
Rethymnon, 2000
По мнению автора, в парадигме основного течения экономической науки не уделялось должного внимания вопросу различия между физическим и институциональным описанием экономической активности. В статье показано, как правильное разделение между физическими и институциональными рамками в экономических моделях может прояснить понятие экстерналий и предоставить основу для лучшего понимания соотношения между экстерналиями и невыпуклостью производственной функции.
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