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Всего публикаций в данном разделе: 35

Книги

Авторы:
все А Б ВГ Д Е ЖЗИ ЙК Л М Н О П Р С Т У ФХ ЦЧ Ш ЩЭЮЯ
AB C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z
 
Названия:
А БВ Г Д ЕЖЗ И ЙК ЛМ Н О П Р С Т У ФХЦ ЧШЩЭ ЮЯ
A B C D E F G H I JKL M N O P Q R S T U V W XY Z
 

Опубликовано на портале: 04-01-2004
Awudu I. Abdulai, Dominique Aubert
Zaragoza, 2002
This study employs both nonparametric and parametric methods to examine the influence of household expenditure and other demographic variables on household consumption of calories in Tanzania, using recent survey data. Under each estimation strategy we employ, we find significant and positive relationship between household expenditure and calorie consumption. Even with an estimation strategy that ensures consistent estimates in the presence of measurement error, the calorie-expenditure elasticity is 0.46, a finding that is consistent with the traditional view that, increases in household income will improve calorie intake and help alleviate inadequate nutrition.
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Опубликовано на портале: 29-11-2003
Steffen Abele, Peter Voigt, Peter Weingarten
2002
Subsistence agriculture in Central and Eastern Europe (CEE) has only recently gained interest from agricultural economists. Their origin, their future and even their definition is still not well elaborated. This paper tries to throw light on the issue of subsistence farming in CEE. It first discusses the theoretical and empirical background of subsistence agriculture. This part is followed by a typology of subsistence farming as found in CEE. Analysis considers several hypotheses on the cause of subsistence agriculture, among them the structure of land ownership, market imperfections and lack of alternative income sources or low opportunity costs of labour respectively. Of all these hypotheses, only the latter can be proofed empirically, which is done by a nonlinear regression analysis. The paper concludes that this gives reason to argue that rather economic problems than specific problems related to the agricultural structure in CEE determine the degree of subsistence farming. Consequently, structural and social policies rather than agricultural policies like market intervention are to be considered.
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Опубликовано на портале: 04-01-2004
Philip D. Adams, Lill Andersen, Lars-Bo Jacobsen
Zaragoza, 2002
We describe how an applied dynamic general equilibrium model of the Danish economy has been developed to generate structural forecasts. The forecasts provide a microeconomic picture that is consistent with a macroeconomic scenario and the other inputs. We provide an overview of the inputs required to generate the forecasts and of the forecast methodology. Finally, we present aspects of the forecasting results.
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Опубликовано на портале: 30-11-2003
Rajeev Ahuja, Johannes Jutting
2003
Community based micro insurance has aroused much interest and hope in meeting health care challenges facing the poor. In this paper we explore how institutional rigidities such as credit constraint impinge on demand for health insurance and how insurance could potentially prevent poor households from falling into poverty trap. In this setting, we argue that the appropriate public intervention in generating demand for insurance is not to subsidise premium but to remove these rigidities (easing credit constraint in the present context).

Thus from insurance perspective as well, our analysis highlights the importance of having appropriate savings and borrowing instruments for the poor.
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Опубликовано на портале: 28-11-2003
Ana-Maria Aldanondo, Javier Puertolas
2002
In this paper we use a general equilibrium model to examine the effects of international quota transfer when a quota restricts world commodity production whilst the trade in an intermediate good is not regulated. The analysis shows that, when the quota regime is not internationally transferable, intermediate input trade substitutes for final good trade. In these circumstances, the distortions are lower than expected. International quota transfer increases world welfare proportionally to quota rent gap. Welfare distribution is also conditioned by commodity terms of trade and, particularly, by the outcome of the intermediate good price.
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Опубликовано на портале: 25-12-2003
Arega D. Alene, Rashid M. Hassan
Durban, 2003
This paper employed a robust stochastic efficiency decomposition technique that accounts for scale effects to derive the technical, allocative, and overall productive efficiency of two samples of farmers, participants and non-participants in the New Extension Program (NEP), in two agro-climatic zones in eastern Ethiopia. Using data for the 2001/2002 agricultural year, we find that both groups of farmers in the two zones have considerable overall productive inefficiencies. In the wet highlands, although the participants in NEP used a superior technology and have higher technical efficiencies, their allocative efficiencies turned out to be lower than the non-participant farmers, relative to their respective technologies. However, both groups exhibit similar productive efficiencies. In the dry lands, apart from using homogeneous production technologies, the two groups do not have significantly different technical and allocative efficiencies and that they have similar productive efficiencies.

Therefore, we find no empirical evidence of a positive impact of NEP on overall productive efficiency in both agro-climatic zones. An investigation of the influence of several socioeconomic and institutional factors revealed that education, credit, previous participation in extension programs, off-farm income and the share of the leading cropping system have a positive impact on efficiency.
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Опубликовано на портале: 30-11-2003
Maria del Carmen Almansa-Saez, Javier Calatrava-Requena
2002
The methodology used for Economic Valuation of the Externalities generated by the Watershead Restoration and Erosion Control Projects in the Hydrographic Basins of the Mediterranean Slope, is based on the Replacement Cost Method. Environmental Economics, however, today offer us other methodological possibilities, whose application to the valuation of this type of project may prove to be of interest. It is the case of the Contingent Valuation Method used for the evaluation of the effects of the Watershead Restoration and Erosion Control Projects of the Aljibe Basin (Almería) Spain, presented here. The results obtained show that, in this case study, application of Contingent Valuation ascribes greater social profitability of the project, with 5.23 % of IRR (Internal Rate of Return), compared to the value obtained using classic methodology of 2.25%, thus enabling us to draw closer to the true socio-environmental value of this type of project. In any case, both possibilities rather than alternatives can be considered as complementary, by focusing on the valuation from different perspectives.
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Опубликовано на портале: 04-01-2004
Julian M. Alston, Philip G. Pardey
Berlin, 2000
Estimated rates of return to research are distorted by problems of attributing the credit for particular research results, or for particular research-induced productivity increases, to research expenditures undertaken at different times, in different places, and by different agencies. A comprehensive assessment of the evidence from past economic evaluations of the returns to agricultural R&D indicates that studies generally report high rates of return, with enormous variation among studies, but that much of this evidence has been tainted by inadequate attention to attribution problems. br>
This paper raises these concerns in a general way, and illustrates their importance with reference to two particular types of attribution problem. First, we consider the problem of accounting for locational spillovers in attributing varietal improvement technology among research performers, using U.S. wheat varieties as an example. Second, we consider the temporal aspects of the attribution problem using the specification of research lags in econometric models to illustrate the problem of attributing aggregate productivity gains to research expenditures at different times.
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Опубликовано на портале: 30-11-2003
Oliveira Amimo, Donald W. Larson, Mauricio Bittencourt, Douglas H. Graham
2003
Many policy makers and businesses erroneously believe that rural populations, particularly in Africa, have no margin for savings over consumption needs. This study examines the potential for financial savings in rural Mozambican households by looking at the determinants of savings behavior. An econometric model for a household.s saving behavior was estimated using data from 113 rural households from Nampula province in Mozambique. Results indicate that income, physical wealth, household size, and years of schooling affect a household.s savings behavior. The study also finds that Mozambican rural households use their own grassroots associations for many financial services due to the lack of access to formal financial intermediaries.
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Опубликовано на портале: 28-11-2003
Giovanni Anania
2002
The paper shows how analyses assuming perfect competition can yield a distorted estimation of the expected effects of a trade liberalization when market imperfections exist. The analytical framework adopted is very simple and three extreme imperfect market structures are considered. In the first case, the exporting country maximizes its producer and consumer surplus by intervening in the world market. The second market imperfection considered is the existence of a private firm playing the role of “pure middleman” in the world market. Then the case of a producer-owned marketing board which is granted exclusive export authority is addressed. It is shown that under all three scenarios, if perfect competition is assumed when market imperfections exist, the impact of a tariff reduction on prices and volume traded is overestimated. A ranking of the size of such distortions in the three cases analyzed is provided. Finally, it is proved that when a private firm exerts monopoly and monopsony power in the world market, both the importing and the exporting countries may well be better off if, rather than making a move towards trade liberalization, the importing country “compensates” the exporting country by means of a direct transfer.
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Опубликовано на портале: 04-01-2004
Kym Anderson, Rodney Tyers
Michigan: University of Michigan Press, 1992
Авторы книги исследуют эффект от либерализации мировой торговли продукцией сельского хозяйства. Рассматривается современное состояние торговли сельскохозяйственной продукцией и проблемы либерализации, изменение структуры мировых продовольственных рынков, политика протекционизма сельского хозяйства развитыми странами, моделируется ситуация либерализации торговли, рассчитываются потери и выгоды от данной политики.

Опубликовано на портале: 04-01-2004
Sven Anders, Johannes Harshce, Roland Herrmann
Zaragoza, 2002
The objective of this paper is twofold. First, we intend to show how regional impacts of the CAP can be measured in terms of the price and revenue impacts. Second, new empirical evidence will be presented by use of the proposed method for regions in Germany. Data utilized are available over time (1986-99) and across commodities, so that regional support due to the CAP can be aggregated from support for the individual commodities.
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Опубликовано на портале: 29-11-2003
Ana M. Angulo, Jose Maria Gil, Jesus Mur
2002
In this paper, the Spanish demand for food away from home is analysed. A panel data set is built and appropriate techniques for estimating limited dependent variable models have been applied. Results indicate that where there are zero expenditures, these are largely due to infrequency of purchase rather than to abstention or to economic reasons. Furthermore, important differences appear among households. On the one hand, those households whose head is a highly-educated person, male, young and living on a salary in a large town are more likely to purchase food away from home. On the other hand, increases in income only provokes more than proportional increases in expenditure for those households headed by an unschooled person, a female or a person older than 55 and also for those households with more than half of its members older than 60 years.
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Опубликовано на портале: 30-11-2003
Jesus Anton, Chantal Le Mouel
2003
Analytical results in the literature suggest that counter-cyclical payments create risk-related incentives to produce even if they were "decoupled" under certainty (Hennessy, 1998). This paper develops a framework to assess the risk-related incentives to produce created by commodity programmes like the loan deficiency payments and the Counter-Cyclical Payments (CCP) in the FSRI Act. Because CCP are paid based on fixed production quantities they have a weaker risk-reducing impact than loan deficiency payments. The latter have a direct impact through the variance of the producer price distributions, while the impact of CCP is due only to the covariance between the CCP and the producer price distributions. The methodology developed by Chavas and Holt (1990) is applied to calculate the appropriate variance-covariance matrix of the truncated producer price distributions created by the FSRI in 2002. Risk premiums are computed showing that the risk related incentives created by CCP are significant and they do not disappear for levels of production that are larger than the base production on which they are paid.
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Опубликовано на портале: 31-12-2003
Shihomi Ara
Zaragoza, 2003
Organic rice production in the Philippines has been growing rapidly since 1986. We conducted a conjoint analysis to determine consumers. preferences of multiple attributes of organic rice in Manila and Naga city. Attributes included were price, reduced health risk level, environmental quality, eating quality, type of organic certification and a fair trade factor. In both cities, health risk was the primary concern. Consumers in Manila revealed organic certification to be the second most important factor while improvement of the farm environment was the second highest factor in Naga city.

We found that consumers who live further from the production site have a higher demand for certification. On the other hand, consumers who live close to the farms care more about the farm environment and have a lower demand for certification.
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