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Всего публикаций в данном разделе: 33

Книги

Авторы:
все А Б ВГ Д Е ЖЗИ ЙК Л М Н О П Р С Т У ФХ ЦЧ Ш ЩЭЮЯ
A B CD E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z
 
Названия:
А БВ Г Д ЕЖЗ И ЙК ЛМ Н О П Р С Т У ФХЦ ЧШЩЭ ЮЯ
A B C D E F G H I JKL M N O P Q R S T U V W XY Z
 

Опубликовано на портале: 30-11-2003
Maria del Carmen Almansa-Saez, Javier Calatrava-Requena
2002
The methodology used for Economic Valuation of the Externalities generated by the Watershead Restoration and Erosion Control Projects in the Hydrographic Basins of the Mediterranean Slope, is based on the Replacement Cost Method. Environmental Economics, however, today offer us other methodological possibilities, whose application to the valuation of this type of project may prove to be of interest. It is the case of the Contingent Valuation Method used for the evaluation of the effects of the Watershead Restoration and Erosion Control Projects of the Aljibe Basin (Almería) Spain, presented here. The results obtained show that, in this case study, application of Contingent Valuation ascribes greater social profitability of the project, with 5.23 % of IRR (Internal Rate of Return), compared to the value obtained using classic methodology of 2.25%, thus enabling us to draw closer to the true socio-environmental value of this type of project. In any case, both possibilities rather than alternatives can be considered as complementary, by focusing on the valuation from different perspectives.
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Опубликовано на портале: 28-11-2003
Miriam E. Berges, Karina S. Casellas
2002
The purpose of this paper is to provide some microeconomics tools to discuss and evaluate public policies that imply transfers of income from the public sector to the poor and their impact on their food demand and calories and nutrient intakes. This study is concerned with the differences in subsistence expenditures, own-price elasticities and income elasticities for two households groups segmented by income: those people below the poverty guideline and those above it. The attention of our research is focused on a demand system for all food groups included in a National Consumption Survey and examines the household food consumption behavior by partitioning the sample. A complete system of demand equations, the Linear Expenditure System (LES), has been used due to its relative empirical expediency. Some additional econometric techniques to correct the bias in the parameter estimates were also applied because of the large number of zero observations in the data. Preliminary estimations following the procedure suggested in the Park et al. (1996) paper, gave some results that they were not as good as we expected and we finally use an alternative one based on Shonkwiler and Yen (1999).
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Опубликовано на портале: 29-03-2005
Andrea Bonfiglio, Emilio Chiodo
2004
The objective of this paper is to evaluate the overall impact produced by the application of European development policies for rural areas of the Italian Marche region for the period 2000-2003. Towards this aim, the input-output approach is adopted. A Marche regional I-O table is firstly constructed using a hybrid method. To evaluate the overall impact throughout the territory, two models are developed and applied recursively: an interregional I-O model and a gravity model. As for the former, sub-interregional I-O tables are constructed, where the regions under study are, on one hand, the functional area receiving funds and, on the other hand, the rest of the Marche region. The gravity model is instead used to allocate among the other areas the impact calculated for the rest of the region. To show how the impact is distributed among regional areas, a Geographical Information System is used. The paper concludes illustrating the main results in terms of overall impact generated by policy and providing some considerations related to policy effectiveness.
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Опубликовано на портале: 29-11-2003
Zohra Bouamra-Mechemache, Jean-Paul Chavas, Tom Cox, Vincent Requillart
2002
In a period of market liberalization and multilateral trade negotiations, price discrimination for commodities with distinct markets provides additional policy options to support farm income. While both the USA and Canada have implemented price discrimination policies in their domestic dairy sector, so far the European Union (EU) has not. This paper evaluates the options of developing a price discrimination policy in the EU dairy sector. The analysis is based on an interregional model of the EU dairy sector, involving milk production, dairy processing, and consumption of ten dairy commodities in nine regions.

The paper shows that a price discrimination policy that increases prices for commodities with more inelastic demand (fluid milk, soft dairy products) would generate income that can be redistributed to dairy farmers. The results suggest that, while such a price discrimination policy can be a WTO compatible way to support dairy farm income, the efficiency of the associated income transfers declines in the presence of significant supply response.
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Опубликовано на портале: 07-10-2008
Luis M B Cabral
Cambridge, Mass: MIT Press, 2000, 368 с.
Over the past twenty years, the study of industrial organization--the analysis of imperfectly competitive markets--has grown from a niche area of microeconomics to a key component of economics and of related disciplines such as finance, strategy, and marketing. This book provides an issue-driven introduction to industrial organization. It includes a vast array of examples, from both within and outside the United States. While formal in its approach, the book is written in a way that requires only basic mathematical training. Supplemental materials posted on the Web make more extensive use of algebra and calculus.
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Опубликовано на портале: 28-11-2003
Javier Calatrava-Leyva, Alberto Garrido
2002
Water availability in semiarid regions usually exhibits patterns of extreme variability. Even in intensively controlled basins, some users are subject to low levels of water reliability, and more vulnerable to periods of extreme scarcity. To reduce their risk exposure more flexible instruments, such as voluntary exchanges of water among users, are required. Recent changes in the Spanish water Law have given an initial impulse to allow for leases of water use rights. Properly designed and monitored, this instrument provides some flexibility to water management, and may increase the economic use efficiency as well as mitigate the adverse economic effects of droughts.

This paper looks at the risks and uncertainty dimensions of water markets, which have not been paid much attention in the literature. It analyses, from theoretical and empirical standpoints, the role that uncertainty plays in market participants’ decisions and its impact on gains from trade. Two models have been developed to carry out the empirical application. One is a stochastic and two-stage discreet programming model which simulates irrigators behaviour and the other is a spatial equilibrium model to compute market exchange and equilibrium. Water market price endogeneity is solved by an iterative process, which characterise price uncertainty from the results obtained from the spatial equilibrium model. Hydrological risk is characterised at the irrigation farm level through the variation of the water allowances served for irrigation. The application is performed on eleven irrigated farms in a district of the Guadalquivir Valley (Southern Spain). It is shown how water availability uncertainty reduces farmers’ benefits because of the fact that they must take ex – ante decisions. However, if market participation is allowed once water allowances become known, even at an uncertain price, the benefit losses are partly mitigated. From a methodological standpoint, these results suggest that the agricultural water market benefits estimates found in the literature may be undervalued as a result of omitting the option to participate in the market in the mix of possible strategies. Exchanging water in annual spot markets allows for the reduction of farmers’ economic vulnerability caused by the variability and uncertainty of water supply within an irrigation season.
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Опубликовано на портале: 30-12-2003
Javier Calatrava-Leyva, Alberto Garrido
Durban, 2003
Water availability in semiarid regions commonly exhibits patterns of extreme variability. Even in basins with large infrastructure development, some users are subject to low levels of water reliability, incurring economic losses during periods of scarcity. More flexible instruments, such as voluntary exchanges of water among users, may help users reduce their risk exposure. Recent changes in the Spanish water Law have given an initial impulse to allow for lease-out contracts of water use rights. This paper analyses, from theoretical and empirical standpoints, the effect that establishing water markets has on the economic risk caused by water availability variations.

The empirical study is performed on an irrigation district of the Guadalquivir Valley (Spain) with fair levels of average water availability but a high probability of periods of extreme scarcity. A non-linear programming model is used to simulate irrigators’ behaviour and derive water demand functions. Another spatial equilibrium model is used to compute market exchange and equilibrium. These programming models are combined with statistical simulation techniques. It is shown that the probability distribution of profits for a representative irrigator is modified if water exchanges are authorised, resulting in unambiguous risk reductions. Results also suggests that if the market would be extended to several irrigation districts and users, each characterised by different hydrological risk exposure, the occurrence of extremely low benefits events would become more unlikely. In sum, it is shown that exchanging water in annual spot markets allows for the reduction of farmers’ economic vulnerability caused by the variability of water supply across irrigation seasons.
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Опубликовано на портале: 29-11-2003
Javier Guillem Carrau, Raul Compes Lopez
2002
The United States is the leading country in the application of biotechnology to agricultural methods. One of the principal reasons for this is the flexibility of its legislation on Genetically Modified Organisms (GMO). A significant part of its production of soya or corn is already genetically modified, so that its companies need to avoid technical barriers to their exports in the world markets?. In the EU, negative public opinion has contributed to the adoption by the authorities of exigent legislation in order to avoid the possible risks to human health and the environment posed by GMO. The EU’s authorisation procedure for these organisms is long and meticulous.

Furthermore, a compulsory labelling system has been adopted for products, which contain GMO or genetically modified materials (GM materials). In 1998, American interests started to be adversely affected by European legislation. The USA Administration threatened to sue the EU before the World Trade Organisation (WTO). These threats have yet to be followed up with any action. The rules of international trade are regulated by agreements signed up to by the members of the WTO. The EU can argue that its authorisation procedure is designed to reduce the risks to health and the environment. This line of argument is compatible with the Agreements on Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures (SPS) and Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT). The compulsory labelling system is also compatible with the Agreement on TBT if the WTO accepts that a product in which GM material is detected is not similar to a conventional one. The Protocol of Biosafety further supports the EU position since it advocates a cautious approach exemplified by the fact that the Protocol permits consideration of non-scientific risks during risk assessment. However, the Protocol is not yet in force, it is pending ratification by at least 50 countries and, now more than ever, it is uncertain whether the United States will be willing to ratify the Protocol. However, we cannot be sure that there will be future commercial controversy, which will show the contradictions between the commercial agreement and the environmental one.
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Опубликовано на портале: 29-11-2003
Claire Chambolle, Eric Giraud-Heraud
2002
We analyse the competition in quality and quantity between a foreign firm and a domestic firm. The domestic firm can belong to a certification of origin, whereas its rival uses a pure brand strategy. We will show how the certification can allow the domestic firm to position itself as a high quality producer and improve the average quality of the products offered on the market. If, however, the certified firm offers the low quality good, the certification can permit it to guarantee a higher profit than that of its competitor and to improve the consumers’ surplus by favoring product standardisation.
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Опубликовано на портале: 25-12-2003
Hannah Chaplin, Sophia Moissey Davidova, Matthew Gorton
Durban, 2003
Survey evidence from three Central European Countries (Czech Republic, Hungary and Poland) is analysed to identify the degree of non-agricultural farm diversification and the factors facilitating or impeding it in individual farms. The effect of diversification on rural job creation is investigated. The results indicate that the level of diversification is relatively small and enterprise diversification by farmers is unlikely to generate sufficient new jobs and solve the problem of high rural unemployment. The attempt to transpose the Western European model of agricultural diversification to the acceding countries via the SAPARD programme is questionable, as non-farm centric rural policies appear to be more appropriate.
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Опубликовано на портале: 04-01-2004
Ming-Chin Chin, Robert D. Weaver
Zaragoza, 2002
Theoretical and simulation results clarify the role of forward procurement contracting as a determinant of spot price levels and volatility. A stylized model determines market share across quality when procurers forward contract to manage quality risk. Actual supply is specified as price dependent and stochastic. Simulation examines sensitivity of spot price level and volatility to extent of forward contracting, risk aversion, and ability to adjust spot market demand (recontracting).

The results show that as forward contracting increases mean spot price decreases and variance increases. This effect increases as risk aversion decreases and as the extent of recontracting adjustment in spot demand decreases.
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Опубликовано на портале: 30-11-2003
Anwar F. Chishti, Waqar Malik
2002
A theory-based graphical analysis of WTO’s trade liberalization policies (opening of close-economy to international trade and cuts in price-supports, import-tariffs and exportsubsidies) suggests that most of such policies would yield net social gains to the society, as a whole. The adverse effects and losses in producer surpluses of some of the policies would be balanced out by greater gains in consumer surpluses and vice versa. Losses in producer surpluses due to cuts in price supports and import tariffs are also expected to be partially subsided by reductions in export subsidies mainly granted by the USA and EU; hence, policies need to be enforced, not in isolation, but in a simultaneous fashion. Trade liberalization would help minimize control of individuals on trade, leave less room for individual policy makers, tax collectors and interest groups to exploit situations in their own interest and lead the economy to be run in accordance with the supply and demand forces based on the last lasting general tendency of human nature. This would help to achieve a sustainable and stable agricultural growth; however, more durable sustained growth would depend as how effectively trade liberalization is pursued and enforced the world over. Opening of closed economy for exportables, and withdrawal of export subsidies by foreign exporters would be proproducers and would directly contribute to poverty alleviation. Opening of economy for importables, withdrawal of price supports and tariff-cuts on imports would yield savings to consumers and would positively contribute towards poverty reduction.
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Опубликовано на портале: 30-11-2003
Shyamal K. Chowdhury
2003
This paper assesses the impact of access to information on farm household.s factor market participation. The paper tries to answer two questions. First, does use of telephone have any impact on farm household's factor market participation decision? Second, correcting for market participation, does use of telephone have any impact on the type of factor adjustment decision? For the first question, the paper uses a bivariate probit to correct for omitted variable bias and for the second question, the paper uses a two stage probit. Empirical findings of this paper suggest that access to information in the form of use of telephone has significant positive impact on factor market participation. The difference in market participation between telephone users and nonusers is around 14 percent. However, once a household participate in the market, the use of telephone does not have any impact on specific factor market participation.
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Опубликовано на портале: 29-11-2003
Jan Christensen
2002
Agri-environmental schemes are offered by a regulator to farmers. The farmer is to produce certain environmental goods and gets a pecuniary compensation for doing so. The problem of designing optimal schemes is dealt with using mechanisms design theory. This paper considers the situation where the regulator faces a budget constraint on total payments to farmers. It is shown, that 2 results of standard mechanisms design theory are affected when a budget restriction on total payments is present.
1) The ”no distortion at the top rule“ does not always hold.
2) It is not always optimal to o.er heterogeneous farmers heterogeneous argi-environmental schemes.
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Опубликовано на портале: 30-11-2003
J. Stephen Clark, Kurt K. Klein, William A. Kerr
2003
A new procedure is developed to estimate innovation possibility frontiers and test for biases in technological change. Using data on four inputs (land, machinery, chemicals and labour) from central Canada (Ontario and Quebec) over the period 1926-1985, we find that the innovations possibilities frontier shifts neutrally over time. This is consistent with Ahmad.s model of induced innovations, but is not consistent with de Janvry.s application of Ahmad.s model to the historical development of Argentine agriculture. Agricultural research in Canada has been conducted with the objective of developing cost minimizing technologies. Empirical support was found for this notion in the development of the innovation possibilities frontier.
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