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Всего публикаций в данном разделе: 34

Книги

Авторы:
все А Б ВГ Д Е ЖЗИ ЙК Л М Н О П Р С Т У ФХ ЦЧ Ш ЩЭЮЯ
A B C D E FG H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z
 
Названия:
А БВ Г Д ЕЖЗ И ЙК ЛМ Н О П Р С Т У ФХЦ ЧШЩЭ ЮЯ
A B C D E F G H I JKL M N O P Q R S T U V W XY Z
 

Опубликовано на портале: 20-04-2004
Евгения Викторовна Серова, Василий Якимович Узун, Рудольф Эдуардович Прауст, А.Н Тарасов, Bruce L. Gardner, В. Тизенхьюзен, T. Ferenczi
Москва: ИЭПП, негосударственный некоммерческий фонд Аналитический центр агропродовольственной экономики (АПЭ), 1999, cерия "Научные труды"
Научное издание представляет материалы международной конференции, проведённой АПЭ в Голицыно 1-2 октября 1999 года. Рассматриваются результаты приватизации земли и реорганизации сельскохозяйственных предприятий в ходе российских аграрных реформ.
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Опубликовано на портале: 29-11-2003
Cristina Brasili, Roberto Fanfani
2002
The main objective of this paper is to analyse the structural changes in European Agri-food systems in the last 30 years in order to verify the presence of a convergence process towards a more homogeneous structure among EU countries. This analysis considers the relative importance of the main components of Agri-food systems (agriculture, food industry and food consumption) and how they change over time. The analysis of convergence utilise the European National Accounting Data (from the SEC2 Data Base of Eurostat) from 1970 to 2000 for twelve EU countries. We use tests of convergence on cross section data by countries, but also stochastic kernel methodologies to verify the dynamic evolution of groups of countries inside the EU. The results show there are important process of convergence among countries for the variables of the Agri-food system that are more linked to the economic development, such as the importance of agriculture and food consumption in GDP. On the other hand there are divergences on the variables more linked to the openness degree and to the competitiveness of the Agri-food system. The presence of polarisation process among groups of countries contribute to permanence of long run structural changes among Northern and Southern countries in the EU.
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Опубликовано на портале: 24-12-2003
Tim J. Coelli, Euan Fleming
Durban, 2003
Smallholder farming systems in Papua New Guinea are characterised by an integrated set of cash cropping and subsistence food cropping activities. In the Highlands provinces, the subsistence food crop sub-system is dominated by sweet potato production. Coffee dominates the cash cropping sub-system, but a limited number of food crops are also grown for cash sale. The dynamics between sub-systems can influence the scope for complementarity between, and technical efficiency of, their operations, especially in light of the seasonality of demand for household labour and management inputs within the farming system. A crucial element of these dynamic processes is diversification into commercial agricultural production, which can influence factor productivity and the efficiency of crop production where smallholders maintain a strong production base in subsistence foods.

Data are used on coffee and food crop production for 18 households in the Benabena district of Eastern Highlands Province to derive technical efficiency indices for each household over two years. A stochastic input distance function approach is used to establish whether diversification economies exist and whether specialisation in coffee, subsistence food or cash food production significantly influences technical efficiency on the sampled smallholdings.

Diversification economies are weakly evident between subsistence food production and both coffee and cash food production, but diseconomies of diversification are discerned between coffee and cash food production. A number of factors are tested for their effects on technical efficiency. Significant technical efficiency gains are made from diversification among broad cropping activities.
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Опубликовано на портале: 31-03-2005
Detlef Deumlich, J. Thiere, H. I. Reuter, L. Völker, R. Funk, Joachim Kiesel
2004
This paper presents a comparative method (SICOM) to evaluate complex site conditions at the level of a Federal State (Brandenburg) and at different areal units. The methodology uses primary site conditions and provides the possibility to objectively compare and judge different ecological questions. Objects with heterogeneous content are pooled in comparison groups. Consideration of the main site characteristics allows a goal-oriented allocation of subsidies. The use of SICOM is demonstrated for the wind and water erosion risk assessment across different scales from Federal State down to a parcel of land. The “parcel” aggregation-level proves to be useful to assess the erosion risk. Larger scales are less useful in the assessment of subsidies policy with regard to erosion risk. SICOM is demonstrated to be suitable for comparing and assessing regional aspects more objectively.
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Опубликовано на портале: 24-12-2003
Daniel Deybe, Abigail Fallot
Durban, 2003
Relationships between the greenhouse effect and agricultural activity are usually and firstly considered in terms of the impact of climate change on agriculture. But in reverse, farmers and herders may react to a climate policy imposing a carbon price to GHG-emitting activities, and possibly contribute to the emissions mitigation as well as to carbon sequestration. The degree of efficiency of the reactions will vary across regions of the world and across activities. A methodology considering risk associated with technology changes is proposed for estimating and accounting these reactions under production and resource constraints. For a business-as-usual scenario quantified by the integrated assessment model Image, decisions concerning land-use and alternative practices are modeled. Results indicate that main agricultural activities provide little room for manoeuvre for emissions mitigation.
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Опубликовано на портале: 30-11-2003
Jay Fabiosa, John C. Beghin, Stephane de Cara, Cheng Fang, Murat Isik, Holger Matthey
2003
Using a partial equilibrium model of world agriculture, we investigate the multilateral removal of all border taxes and farm programs and their distortion of world agricultural markets. These distortions have significant terms-of-trade effects. World trade is also significantly impacted by both types of distortions. Trade expansion is substantial for most commodities, especially dairy, meats, and vegetable oils. Net agricultural and food exporters (Brazil, Australia, and Argentina) emerge with expanded exports; whereas net importing countries with limited distortions before liberalization are penalized by higher world markets prices and reduced imports. The US gains significant export shares in livestock products and imports more dairy products. Without protection and domestic subsidies, the EU loses many of its livestock and dairy export markets.
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Опубликовано на портале: 30-12-2003
Marcel Fafchamps, Bart Minten
Durban, 2003
This paper investigates the relationship between theft and poverty in rural areas. Following a disputed presidential election, fuel supply to the highlands of Madagascar was severely curtailed in early 2002, resulting in a massive -- if temporary -- increase in poverty. This situation constituted a natural experiment of the effect of poverty on theft. Using original survey data collected in June 2002 at the height of the crisis, we find that crop theft increases with poverty and that an increase in law enforcement personnel reduces cattle theft, a form of organized crime. Results suggest that theft is used by some of the rural poor as a risk coping strategy. Increased transport costs led to a rise in cattle and crop theft, suggesting that isolation raises crime.
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Опубликовано на портале: 04-01-2004
Walter P. Falcon
Berlin, 2000
This essay seeks to shed light on the causes and potential consequences of restricted germplasm flows among nations. My objective is to provide a synthesis of existing literature and events of which I was a part, with a focus on food security in poor countries. Regrettably, the mechanisms restricting flows are complicated, the data on the size and direction of flows are meager, the outcomes are uncertain, and the policy mechanisms for alleviating the problems are largely untested. My general hypothesis is that four separate forces are now interacting in ways that should worry everyone concerned with the transfer of technology, particularly improved crop varieties, to scores of the world’s poorest nations. These elements include: new provisions on intellectual property, especially patenting in the United States; an increased concentration of new enabling technologies into a few large multinational companies; heightened anxieties over transgenic foods, especially in Europe; and new problems arising from old ambiguities in the Convention on Biodiversity. Individually, these components are reasonably well understood. Collectively, however, they are poorly understood, and their combined impact on the poorer countries of the world is very troublesome.
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Опубликовано на портале: 29-11-2003
Istvan Feher, Zsolt Papp
2002
Based on the Policy Analysis Matrix (PAM) approach this paper provides an assessment of the competitive position of the Hungarian agro-food industry in view of EU integration. The situation in the food processing sector is assessed with the use of actual cost data from representative Hungarian companies. The paper presents an assessment of the current situation prior to EU integration as well as a future outlook under various scenarios with regard to the expected policy environment and the rate of technological change. The actual measurement of competitiveness in this study focuses mainly on Private Resource Cost (PRC) which indicates competitiveness under real market conditions and Domestic Resource Cost (DRC) which gives an assessment on the social or economic efficiency of an activity, i.e. whether domestic resources are really used efficiently in current production. In the food processing sector 21 different food products have been investigated which fall into four industries: meat, poultry, dairy, and fruits and vegetables. Under current conditions only some products are competitive in private terms. The situation would improve after EU integration especially for poultry, fruits and vegetables, because agricultural policy conditions are more favourable under the CAP. If additional FDI(Foreign Direct Investments) would flow into the country after EU membership, this would boost profitability. As far as DRC values are concerned, it must be stated that only some of the production activities are clearly efficient. Dairy, fruits and vegetables, and roast goose production show relatively weak social competitiveness, while other poultry and fruit and vegetables products are more favourable from the economic point of view. As EU policies provide on average higher protection levels, the competitiveness of Hungarian food processing on world markets would deteriorate for most products after EU accession. However, these effects can be offset by additional technological change due to FDI inflows or otherwise induced technological progress.
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Опубликовано на портале: 28-11-2003
Eli Feinerman, Marinus H.C. Komen
2002
The new Rural Development Regulation of the EU reflects the shift of attention within rural areas from agricultural production towards rural development and embraces both, farmers and non-farm residents. While agricultural production is required to comply with environmental standards, rural areas also have to fulfil the growing demand for landscape, outdoor recreation and wildlife conservation. This paper develops a model of a rural area where farmers and non-farm residents live together. A central government uses a combination of two-policy instruments - direct compensation payments and public services - aimed at encouraging farmers to adopt environmentally beneficial practices and at the same time to increase the provision of country-side amenities and the sustained vitality of the rural area. The optimal mix of the policy instruments is evaluated under various governmental objectives. The analysis suggests that a combination of direct payments to farmers with the supply of local public services is a promising tool for rural policy development initiatives in the EU.
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Опубликовано на портале: 29-11-2003
Eli Feinerman, Jack Peerlings
2002
Uncertainty about the possibility of acquiring land can be rather large in the EU for sectors like dairy farming. Farm-level investment decisions are commonly made ex-ante when the farmer is not certain about the possibility of purchasing land. This possibility is realized only in a future period. In this paper, we have developed and applied a simple two-period model in which a profit-maximizing farmer, facing uncertainty about the possibility of acquiring land, had to choose the optimal mix of capital (buildings) investment and land endowment. We have shown that commonly "observed" biases towards non-optimal investment decisions are not necessarily justified. Rather, these perceived biases may be the result of evaluating investment decisions without reference to the uncertainty associated with the possibility of acquiring land.
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Опубликовано на портале: 30-11-2003
Javier Fernandez
2002
This paper focuses on the consequences that an extension of the Common Agricultural Policy could have on agricultural production in the Central and Eastern European Countries. It reviews the evidence presented by recent attempts to quantify the potential impacts of accession on production levels in the CEECs. It also takes into account results from previous studies in order to analyse the importance that structural constraints might have on the capacity of the CEECs' agricultural sectors to respond to supply incentives under accession to the EU, and to examine some research questions that are still unanswered in relation to the supply potential of the CEECs. Some conclusions and policy recommendations are drawn at the end.
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Опубликовано на портале: 30-11-2003
Imre Ferto, Lionel G. Hubbard
2003
We analyse the evolving pattern of Hungary.s agri-food trade using recently developed empirical procedures based on the classic Balassa index and its symmetric transformation. The extent of trade specialisation exhibits a declining trend; Hungary lost comparative advantage for a number of product groups over the 1990s. The indices of specialisation have also tended to converge. For particular product groups, the picture is mixed: indices are reasonably stable for product groups with comparative disadvantage, but those with weak to strong comparative advantage show significant variation. The results reinforce the finding of a general decrease in specialisation, but do not support the idea of self-reinforcing mechanisms, emphasised strongly in much of the endogenous growth and trade literature.
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Опубликовано на портале: 04-01-2004
Jill L. Findeis
USA: Kendall/Hunt Publishing Company, 1996, 160 с.
Учебник начального уровня по аграрной экономике. Рассматриваются микроэкономические и макроэкономические аспекты аграрной экономики.

Опубликовано на портале: 29-11-2003
M. Carmen Firici, Kenneth J. Thomson
2002
This paper focuses on estimation of distributional economic welfare effects of the adoption of the CAP on different groups of Romanian households. The calculations of welfare effects are based on 1999 household data and refer to a 10-fold breakdown of Romanian households, i.e. five socio-economic categories from urban and rural areas, taking into account own (home) production of food. To identify the most vulnerable groups of Romanian consumers to food price changes, the Slutsky approximation Compensating Variation approach is applied. The results suggest that, if the current CAP is adopted and results in food price changes averaging a 10 per cent increase in all food prices, the lowest-income groups (i.e. urban and rural unemployed households, urban pensioner households) will be the most affected, ceteris paribus (prices of all other goods held constant). The minimum amount by which the groups could be compensated for the effect of price change on their real incomes varies between Euro 3 per month for employers’ households (about 1% of total income) and about Euro 8 per month for farmers’ households (6%). However, due to the relatively large shares of food self-production in total consumption, in particular by rural households, somewhat smaller money compensation would be appropriate.
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