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Всего публикаций в данном разделе: 61

Книги

Авторы:
все А Б ВГ Д Е ЖЗИ ЙК Л М Н О П Р С Т У ФХ ЦЧ Ш ЩЭЮЯ
A B C D E F G H I J K L MN O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z
 
Названия:
А БВ Г Д ЕЖЗ И ЙК ЛМ Н О П Р С Т У ФХЦ ЧШЩЭ ЮЯ
A B C D E F G H I JKL M N O P Q R S T U V W XY Z
 

Опубликовано на портале: 29-11-2003
Ana M. Angulo, Jose Maria Gil, Jesus Mur
2002
In this paper, the Spanish demand for food away from home is analysed. A panel data set is built and appropriate techniques for estimating limited dependent variable models have been applied. Results indicate that where there are zero expenditures, these are largely due to infrequency of purchase rather than to abstention or to economic reasons. Furthermore, important differences appear among households. On the one hand, those households whose head is a highly-educated person, male, young and living on a salary in a large town are more likely to purchase food away from home. On the other hand, increases in income only provokes more than proportional increases in expenditure for those households headed by an unschooled person, a female or a person older than 55 and also for those households with more than half of its members older than 60 years.
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Опубликовано на портале: 29-11-2003
Narciso Arcas, Jose Luis Munuera
2002
The integration in second-order cooperatives allows the first-order agricultural cooperatives to complement their resources and capabilities, achieving a sustainable competitive advantage. The problems associated with the creation, development and long-term maintenance of these partnerships, along with the lack of research into this area, justify the realization of studies aimed at improving our understanding of the processes and outcomes that characterize them. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to discover the factors which lead to the success of these relationships, empirically measured through the satisfaction of first-order co-operatives with the relationship. In order to achieve this, a suitable theoretical framework is established and an empirical study undertaken, with information obtained from a survey of 190 Spanish first-order agricultural co-operatives. The results obtained reveal that the contribution of the partnership to the first-order cooperative’s performance, its trust and perception of fairness are critical antecedents of the level of satisfaction of the first-order cooperative satisfaction with the relationship.
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Опубликовано на портале: 31-03-2005
Michela Ascani, Gaetano Martino
2004
This paper aims to examine some aspects of the Rural Development policies in the light of the conceptualization of institutional complementarities. Actually, an increasing amount of analytical outcomes emerges in inquiring the relationship between specific institutional arrangements and the kind of economic and social problems they may solve. This suggests that under that view some chances of enhancing the knowledge about rural policy making models may be exploited. Actually, the rural systems constituting the European Rural territory show specific and complex institutional orderings defining a rural institutional field. This field calls for specific analysis and policy models. The market and the State are the main entities taken into account in specifying policy patterns in the Rural Development’s field, whereas a communitarian framework is often considered a rooted characteristic of the European rural development processes. The communities’ constituting processes is often not fully considered in the rural development studies. Even if the scholars have usually recognised a correspondence between Community and Rural System, this correspondence has still to be analysed. The paper would examine some Rural Development Policies (i.e. under the EU regulation 1257/99), by taking into account the roles of the market, the State, and the Community. In particular the communitarian field seems of interest in integrating different policy making levels, thus we would delineate the role of the Rural Development Policies in constituting or fostering Rural Communities. The Hohfeld-Commons analytical structure of rights and duties will be considered to this purpose. Then the analytical framework will be taken into account to delineate some opportunities for future scenarios emerging from the CAP reform.
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Finance [книги]
Опубликовано на портале: 31-12-2003
Zvi Bodie, Robert C. Merton
Saddle River: Prentice-Hall, 1999, 479 с.
Базовый учебник по финансам. Может быть использован для курса «Финансы в АПК». Рассматриваются три основные части в корпоративных финансах – оптимизация активов с течением времени, оценка активов, и управление риском. Главы учебника – финансы и финансовая система, время и распределение ресурсов, оценка активов, управление риском и теория портфельной оптимизации, ценообразование на вторичном рынке (фьючерсы, опционы), финансовый менеджмент.

Опубликовано на портале: 25-11-2003
Duncan Boughton, David L. Tschirley, Higino Marrule, Ballard Zulu
2003
Cotton is one of the most important smallholder cash crops in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). How to ensure input supply, credit recovery and competition is a subject of intense policy debate. This paper examines the performance of cotton sector development policies in Mozambique and Zambia. Both countries face the challenge of organizing input supply to farmers in the absence of rural credit markets, and competing in international markets distorted by production subsidies in developed countries. Both countries privatized cotton ginning in the 1990s. Emerging from civil war, Mozambique established geographical monopolies to interlink input and output markets and facilitate credit recovery. In Zambia, the government completely liberalized the cotton sector, forcing the private sector to deal with the problem of input distribution and credit recovery by itself. Despite being landlocked, Zambia.s cotton sector has achieved better performance in terms of both value of cotton output per hectare and smallholder share of world market prices. An analysis of the institutional and technical factors behind the two countries. performance provides insights to guide the design of public/private partnerships relevant to many SSA countries.
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Опубликовано на портале: 30-11-2003
Anwar F. Chishti, Waqar Malik
2002
A theory-based graphical analysis of WTO’s trade liberalization policies (opening of close-economy to international trade and cuts in price-supports, import-tariffs and exportsubsidies) suggests that most of such policies would yield net social gains to the society, as a whole. The adverse effects and losses in producer surpluses of some of the policies would be balanced out by greater gains in consumer surpluses and vice versa. Losses in producer surpluses due to cuts in price supports and import tariffs are also expected to be partially subsided by reductions in export subsidies mainly granted by the USA and EU; hence, policies need to be enforced, not in isolation, but in a simultaneous fashion. Trade liberalization would help minimize control of individuals on trade, leave less room for individual policy makers, tax collectors and interest groups to exploit situations in their own interest and lead the economy to be run in accordance with the supply and demand forces based on the last lasting general tendency of human nature. This would help to achieve a sustainable and stable agricultural growth; however, more durable sustained growth would depend as how effectively trade liberalization is pursued and enforced the world over. Opening of closed economy for exportables, and withdrawal of export subsidies by foreign exporters would be proproducers and would directly contribute to poverty alleviation. Opening of economy for importables, withdrawal of price supports and tariff-cuts on imports would yield savings to consumers and would positively contribute towards poverty reduction.
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Опубликовано на портале: 29-11-2003
Stephan Cramon-Taubadel, J. Meyer
2002
In this paper we survey the literature on asymmetric price transmission. This literature contains a substantial share of publications by agricultural economists. After classifying the different types of asymmetric price transmission in section 2, we describe the explanations for asymmetric price transmission that have been proposed in section 3. In section 4 we focus on the econometric techniques used to quantify asymmetry. Section 5 concludes with a discussion of outstanding methodological problems and suggestions for future research. Our main conclusion is that the existing literature is far from being unified or conclusive, and that a great deal of work remains to be done. A wide variety of often conflicting theories of and empirical tests for asymmetry co-exist in the literature. Furthermore, existing tests are not discerning in the sense that they as a rule to do not make it possible to choose between competing explanations for asymmetry on the basis of empirical results. Therefore, after more than three decades of work, a considerable need for further research remains, and it would appear premature to draw far reaching conclusions for theory and policy on the basis of work to date.
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Опубликовано на портале: 29-03-2005
Thomas Dax, Ingrid Machold, Deborah Roberts
2004
Drawing from the interim findings of a 2 year, EU-wide project, this paper considers the contribution the CAP makes to territorial cohesion across Europe. It is based on analysis of indicators at NUTS 3 level for the EU 27 (including Switzerland and Norway) and initial findings from a case study of CAP support in a region of Austria. Analysis shows that the incidence of Pillar 1 support is not consistent with the economic or social cohesion objectives of the EU. In particular, statistical analysis suggests that Pillar 1 support is distributed in such a way that it tends to benefit richer regions with lower unemployment rates and with higher than average population growth. Contrary to expectations, the incidence of Pillar 2 support is also inconsistent with cohesion objectives, favouring the richer areas of the EU. Reasons identified for the pattern of Pillar 2 support include differing national priorities, the uneven allocation of RDR funds and difficulties of co-financing in poorer regions. Importantly, analysis of the impact of the Mid Term Review proposals on farm incomes suggests that the latest reforms of the CAP will not improve the consistency between the CAP and cohesion. The paper discusses the key policy implications arising from the findings. It is argued that although member states are increasingly able to direct discretionary support measures towards territorial priorities, this is still only a very minor part of the CAP. As is exemplified by the case study in Austria, only a substantial comprehensive effort of rural development measures can provide compensatory territorial effects. Finally, the need for a more coherent, integrative rural development policy framework is discussed.
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Опубликовано на портале: 31-12-2003
Klaus Deininger, Paul Mpuga
Durban, 2003
Although there is broad agreement that well functioning land rental markets will play an important role to increase productivity and household welfare as agrarian economies develop, evidence from Africa on the actual performance and impact of such markets is limited. We use data from Uganda to test for differences in the performance of rental, as compared to sales markets and their evolution over time, based on a framework where markets are affected by differences in ability and imperfections in rural labor and capital markets.

We find that land markets are very active, that land rental but not sales markets transfer land to more efficient and relatively poor producers thereby providing an opportunity for the landless to access land, and that rental market activity has increased recently with economic growth. Despite land prices in some regions being above the net present value of land we find no evidence for sales markets leading to land concentration and conclude that, rather than imposing administrative restrictions, government should aim to improve access to alternative savings instruments.
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Опубликовано на портале: 04-01-2004
Rafaela Dios Palomares, Jose Miguel Martinez Paz
Zaragoza, 2002
This study investigated the efficiency and productivity change of a sample of food distribution units (MERCAs) in Spain over the 1.997-1.999 period, applying non-parametric frontier methodology in a sales efficiency framework. We specified a mean sales model composed of two blocks of variables, the production block, and the marketing management block. Then we applied output oriented DEA methodology to perform the efficiency analysis, also taking into account the overall efficiency decomposition into pure and scale efficiency. The Malmquist index was calculated in order to analyse the components of the productivity change.

The mean pure sales efficiency index was high, around 0.8, the mean scale index being 0,9. As appears from the results, six food distribution units were efficient, but some of the wholesale markets need to adapt their sales technology in order that their input bundle reaches a Most Productive Scale Size unit.

We found no evidence of technical change during the period considered, but concluded that a notable scale efficiency change took place during the studied period.

To summarise, we conclude that improvement in sales efficiency could be reached in the studied sector in both the pure and the scale efficiency.
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Опубликовано на портале: 31-12-2003
Cynthia Donovan, Linda Bailey, Edson Mpyisi, Michael Weber
Durban, 2003
In Rwanda for the past decade, rural households have lived with civil unrest and genocide, changing land laws, large population flows both into and out of the country, and climatic threats with droughts and floods. The illness and untimely death of prime age adults from a number of health problems (increasingly HIV/AIDS) adds to the stress of these households and has lasting effects on the ability of households to survive. In this research, the authors use household and member level survey data to increase understanding about what is happening in households with such shocks and how they may be different from other Rwandan rural households.

This research finds that households affected by adult illness and death strive to maintain their agricultural production, and work to avoid selling assets, yet some households appear to be in a downward spiral, losing assets and income earning potential. They rely heavily on social networks for labor and skills, but clearly these networks will be stretched beyond their means in any continuing epidemics. Female-headed households in particular struggle to find labor with neighbors or work more themselves. If special programs are developed for the affected families, focusing on increasing land and labor productivity fits into their own strategies. Since households with prime age death and disease appear to be similar to other Rwandan households in the poorest two quintiles, such programs would be beneficial to rural households in general, and possibly strengthen social networks through generalized agricultural and income growth.
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Опубликовано на портале: 30-11-2003
Jay Fabiosa, John C. Beghin, Stephane de Cara, Cheng Fang, Murat Isik, Holger Matthey
2003
Using a partial equilibrium model of world agriculture, we investigate the multilateral removal of all border taxes and farm programs and their distortion of world agricultural markets. These distortions have significant terms-of-trade effects. World trade is also significantly impacted by both types of distortions. Trade expansion is substantial for most commodities, especially dairy, meats, and vegetable oils. Net agricultural and food exporters (Brazil, Australia, and Argentina) emerge with expanded exports; whereas net importing countries with limited distortions before liberalization are penalized by higher world markets prices and reduced imports. The US gains significant export shares in livestock products and imports more dairy products. Without protection and domestic subsidies, the EU loses many of its livestock and dairy export markets.
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Опубликовано на портале: 30-12-2003
Marcel Fafchamps, Bart Minten
Durban, 2003
This paper investigates the relationship between theft and poverty in rural areas. Following a disputed presidential election, fuel supply to the highlands of Madagascar was severely curtailed in early 2002, resulting in a massive -- if temporary -- increase in poverty. This situation constituted a natural experiment of the effect of poverty on theft. Using original survey data collected in June 2002 at the height of the crisis, we find that crop theft increases with poverty and that an increase in law enforcement personnel reduces cattle theft, a form of organized crime. Results suggest that theft is used by some of the rural poor as a risk coping strategy. Increased transport costs led to a rise in cattle and crop theft, suggesting that isolation raises crime.
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Опубликовано на портале: 24-12-2003
Steven Franzel, Donald Phiri, Paramu Mafongoya
Durban, 2003
Although there is increasing emphasis on targeting of improved technology towards poor and female farmers, few adoption studies assess the uptake of new practices by these groups in a comprehensive manner.

In this study, community members used the wealth ranking method to identify the different wealth groups in their communities, to determine each household.s wealth status, and to assess the association of wealth and different types of households with the planting of improved tree fallows, a practice for improving crop yields. There were no significant differences between the proportions of women and men planting improved fallows nor were there differences between single women and female heads of households who were married. There was some evidence of association between planting improved fallows and wealth. That 22% of the .poor. group and 16% of the. very poor. group were planting them suggests that there are no barriers preventing low-income households from doing so. Moreover, the proportion of females, poor, and very poor people planting improved fallows varied considerably among villages, suggesting that opportunities exist for increasing their use of the technology. Whereas the use of mineral fertilizer is strongly associated with high- income, male farmers, improved fallows appear to be a gender-neutral and wealth-neutral technology. Poor farmers appreciate improved fallows because they permit them to substitute small amounts of land and labour for cash, their most scarce resource. Finally, the high degree of consistency among different key informants in classifying households among wealth groups confirmed the effectiveness and accuracy of the wealth ranking exercise.
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Опубликовано на портале: 24-12-2003
Vasant P. Gandhi, Robin Marsh
Durban, 2003
The paper examines the impact of local institutions on development and poverty in the rural areas of India. Recent research on the role of institutions on the path of economic development indicates the importance of both "macro" and "micro" institutions including local institutions. The study finds a large number of both formal and informal local institutions in the surveyed villages, and a substantial degree of interaction of the households with the institutions. These include both formal institutions such as service cooperatives and dairy cooperatives, as well as informal institutions such as savings groups, community associations and labour groups. The study finds that apart from the standard factors included such as land, capital and labour, the presence and membership in local institutions plays a significant role in explaining the variation in household incomes and gain in capital assets over time.

Savings/ micro-credit groups, and dairy cooperatives are found to be particularly important. Further, membership in these institutions is not found to be related to high asset levels or high caste - it is often inversely so. This indicates a stronger developmental role. Recorded opinions of the households supports the findings on the impact and beneficial role of local institutions. The study confirms that institutions do matter, and that local institutions can and do make a significant contribution in helping development in the rural areas, especially so for the lower income groups.
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