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Всего публикаций в данном разделе: 78

Книги

Авторы:
все А Б ВГ Д Е ЖЗИ ЙК Л М Н О П Р С Т У ФХ ЦЧ Ш ЩЭЮЯ
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R ST U V W X Y Z
 
Названия:
А БВ Г Д ЕЖЗ И ЙК ЛМ Н О П Р С Т У ФХЦ ЧШЩЭ ЮЯ
A B C D E F G H I JKL M N O P Q R S T U V W XY Z
 

Опубликовано на портале: 30-11-2003
R. Barrena, M. Sanchez, A. Gracia, Jose Maria Gil
2002
Recent food scares in the food market has caused a reduction in consumer’s confidence in the food system that it has induced a significant reduction in consumption in a sector, the beef sector that was already characterized by a saturated trend in quantity terms. In this context, all participants in the beef production system are facing to a greatchallenge, to retrieve consumer’s confidence in the food chain and to mitigate the reduction in beef consumption. The aim of the paper is to analyse the impact of consumer’s confidence in the food system as well as other factors on the explanation of food consumption reduction. A structural modelling approach has been used to analyse factors affecting the reduction in beef consumption in two different regions characterised by different production systems and different marketing strategies (PGI beef label). Results indicate that main factor explaining the reduction in beef consumption is the confidence in the beef and a positive relation has been found. Moreover, confidence in a product is directly related to the perceived quality offered by farmers and other decision makers on the beef chain, and to the consumer involvement with the product. Therefore, the main implication is that participants in the food chain has to develop adequate communication strategies such as quality labelling in order to increase consumers perceive quality because, higher quality perception will recover consumers’ confidence in beef, and therefore, it will mitigate beef consumption reduction.
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Опубликовано на портале: 30-11-2003
Samuel Benin, Melinda Smale, Berhanu Gebremedhin, John Pender, Simeon K. Ehui
2003
On farm conservation of crop diversity entails policy challenges, especially when the diversity of crops maintained on farms has both inter-specific (among crops) and infra-specific (within a crop) components. Survey data is used to compare the determinants of inter- and infra-specific diversity on household farms in the highlands of northern Ethiopia. Physical features of the farm, and household characteristics such as livestock assets and the proportion of adults that are men, have large and significant effects on both the diversity among and within cereal crops grown, varying among crops. Demographic aspects such as age of household head and adult education levels affect only infra-specific diversity of cereals. Though there are no apparent trade-offs between policies that would enhance one type of diversity (richness) versus another (evenness), those designed to encourage infra-specific diversity in one cereal crop might have the opposite effect on another crop. Trade-offs between development and diversity in this resource-poor system are not evident. Market-related variables and population density have ambiguous effects. Education positively influences cereal crop diversity. Growing modern varieties of maize or wheat does not detract from the richness or evenness of these cereals on household farms.
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Опубликовано на портале: 29-11-2003
Carlo Bernini Carri, Maria Sassi
2002
The paper explores the phenomenon of agricultural convergence on regional base within the EU economic cohesion that has always been and still remains one of the mainstay of the EU building process (EU, 1997). A crucial issue is the theoretical and empirical testing of a catching up process, that is a faster growth of the poor countries (regions) than that of the rich ones. The literature on this topic has strengthened recently, but it is mainly referred to economic convergence undermining the importance of the process in the agricultural sector. The relevance mainly refers to the role of the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP). It is the only European policy thought and managed at overnational level with the specific object to overcome the deep agricultural structural disparities within the Member States. This process has been considered fundamental to reach the agricultural and thus economic European integration. Moreover, the interrelationship (if any) between agricultural and economic convergence is of potential interest given that the nature of structural change within agriculture is likely to shaped by broader economic conditions (especially the state of local labour markets).

Thus, the paper first explores the process of agricultural and economic convergence using EU data on real Gross Domestic Product per capita and real Gross Agricultural Value Added per agricultural Work Unit at the level of NUTS 2 regions for 1982,1986 and 1994. Then, it analyses whether: - The intensity of the convergence process in the agricultural sector has been strong enough to promote a decrease in the gap between the agricultural and the economic performance; - The agricultural and economic process of convergence are related on territorial base. Policy implications are not analysed because data at regional level are not available. In literature, the results of testing convergence hypothesis are mixed and strongly dependent on the methodologies applied, the level of analysis, and the explanatory variables adopted (Bernini Carri, Sassi, 1998).
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Опубликовано на портале: 30-11-2003
Maria Bielza, Alberto Garrido, Jose M. Sumpsi
2002
Various forms of revenue insurance have been applied in Canada and in the US with relative success. In this paper different combinations of traditional agricultural policies and revenue and yield insurance are analysed for the Spanish olive oil sector. Taking a database containing about half million Spanish olive growers during 8 campaigns, five possible policies are studied and the results are examined according to different criteria including average revenue and its variability, growers utility gains, taxpayers cost and the transfer efficiency of support. The policies analysed are:
(1) non-intervention;
(2) the policy currently in force in Spain that combines a production aid with a yield insurance;
(3) a revenue insurance, only;
(4) revenue insurance combined with a production aid; and
(5) an aid per tree in combination with revenue insurance.

The methodology is based on Monte-Carlo simulations performed on about 100 groups of growers that have been grouped according to their expected yields and variability. Assuming and estimating olive oil price and yields correlations for each group of growers, the analysis allows for consistent policy comparisons at a very disaggregate level. Using the results for all analysed groups, policies are ranked based on the above criteria at the provincial and national levels. Results show that the current regime of EU production aids of olive oil eliminates the advantage of extending the current yield insurance to a revenue insurance. It is also shown that the level of support delivered by production aids cannot be reached with revenue insurance even with completely subsidised premiums. Finally, it is shown that the policy that combines tree aids with revenue insurance exhibits good results for all examining criteria.
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Опубликовано на портале: 24-12-2003
Stefan Bojnec, Liesbeth Dries, Johan Swinnen
Durban, 2003
This paper analyses the determinants of agricultural labor flows and the role of human capital in this process on the basis of the Slovenian Labor Force Surveys for the years 1993 to 1999. The household heads living in larger households, having a larger farm size, and working full-time (more hours per week) in permanent jobs are more likely to stay in agricultural employment. The empirical evidence clearly suggests that human capital plays a crucial role for labor mobility and labor adjustment. Young, female and educated individuals are more likely to enter into employment in non-agricultural, particularly service activities.

There are remarkable circular flows of elderly and less educated persons between being employed in agriculture, unemployment and retirement pools. Small-scale and part-time farming provide temporary employment opportunities. Investments in human capital to improve quality of labor in agriculture and to increase mobility and flexibility of labor are the key issues in synergy reducing labor mismatch and improving efficiency in labor flow adjustment.
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Опубликовано на портале: 31-12-2003
Martina Brockmeier, Claudia A. Herok, Oliver von Ledebur, Petra Salamon
Durban, 2003
Enlarging the EU presents a tremendous effort with obstacles for old and new member states especially in the agricultural sector. In this paper, impacts of a new accession round were analyzed with the help of the comparative-static general equilibrium model GTAP (Global Trade Analysis Project). The standard version was extended to allow for a better representation of specific instruments of the Common Agriculture Policy and the EU budget.

To capture detailed effects in new member states, simulations were carried out for 12 candidate countries, the EU-15 and the rest of the world. As for products the focus lies on agriculture. Scenarios include an enlargement with and without the transfer of direct payments in the new member states, according to the proposal of the EU commission from January 2002. Simulations in a post-Agenda 2000 environment led to heterogeneous country specific impacts in the accession countries whereas the changes within EU-15 and the rest of the world were negligible. Due to adjustments in tariffs, trade balances of the new member states were deteriorating while welfare effects are positive. Transfer of direct payments led to more pronounced effects, especially with regard to output and trade. Without direct payments accession countries would be net contributors to the EU budget. This would change when they become eligible for this subsidy. In general, the analysis shows the importance of a country specific perspective.
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Опубликовано на портале: 28-11-2003
Jean-Christophe Bureau, Luca Salvatici
2002
This paper provides a summary measure of the possible new commitments in the area of market access undertaken by the European Union and the United States, using the Trade Restrictiveness Index (TRI) as the tariff aggregator. Indicators such as the TRI, based on welfare theory, integrate economic behavioural assumptions within a balance of trade framework. We take the 2000 bound tariffs as the starting point and attempt to assess how much liberalisation in agriculture could be achieved in the European Union and the United States as a result of the present negotiations. We compute the index for agricultural commodity aggregates assuming a specific (Constant Elasticity of Substitution) functional form for import demand. The present levels of the TRI under the actual commitments of the Uruguay Round are computed and compared with three hypothetical cases: a repetition of the same set of commitments of the Uruguay Round, a uniform 36 percent reduction of each tariff, an harmonization formula based on the “sliding scale” scheme. This makes it possible to infer how reducing tariff dispersion would help improve market access in future trade agreements.
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Опубликовано на портале: 29-11-2003
Benjamin Davis, Sudhanshu Handa, Marco Stampini, Paul Winters
2002
This paper aims at evaluating the impact of two different cash transfer programs in rural Mexico – Procampo and Progresa – on total consumption, food consumption and other outcomes like investment, schooling and health care. Progresa is targeted to women, while Procampo goes to farmers, mostly men and many of which are poor. We show that both programs boost consumption. However, they obtain this effect through different channels. Progresa is destined to consumption expenditure directly, while Procampo, which is paid to landholders, boosts investments and needs time to produce its benefits. Furthermore, we separate program from gender effects and show that cash transfer programs targeted to men are beneficial only when the recipients own means of production. This suggest that policy makers should take into account the relationship between gender and ownership of assets when designing poverty reduction programs.
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Опубликовано на портале: 30-11-2003
Jun Furuya, Takeshi Sakurai
2003
Most of the large-scale millers in Ghana provide a loan to the farmers under the agreement that the farmers will bring their paddy to them.

This paper examines the effect of this interlinkage on the efficiency of rice milling. A quadratic cost function was estimated, and capacity utilization was calculated in relation to money lending. The results show that if the millers provide a loan to the farmers, the operating rate will increase by 24%.
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Опубликовано на портале: 04-01-2004
Robert Gibbs, Paul Swaim, Ruy Teixeira
Iowa: Blackwell Publishing Company, 1998, 200 с.
Книга-исследование о состоянии рынка труда в сельской местности США. Автором рассеивает миф о наличии огромного разрыва между уровнем повышения квалификации на месте работы, уровнем образования в сельской местности и уровнем образования в урбанизированных районах. В книге представлена реалистичная информация о структуре, слабых и сильных сторонах современного рынка труда, с предложениями новых методов для профессионального роста.
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Опубликовано на портале: 31-03-2005
Thilo Glebe, Klaus Salhofer
2004
The number of agri-environmental programs, as well as the share of agricultural land covered under these programs, varies significantly between EU member states. We analyze national differences in the uptake of agri-environmental programs by developing a model of countries’ political objective function. Based on this model we identify six factors which may explain the extent to which agri-environmental policies are implemented: environmental benefits, opportunity costs of participation, financial budget pressure, the share of program expenditures financed by the EU, contribution to the EU budget, and political weight attributed to farmers’ income. The conceptual approach is then supplemented by an empirical analysis.
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Опубликовано на портале: 10-04-2005
Hamish R. Gow, Johan Swinnen
2002
This paper analyses empirically the effect of "hold-ups" on capital investment in farms using a sample of 318 Hungarian enterprises, surveyed over 1997. A negative relationship arises between capital investment and the incidence of hold-up behaviour. This relationship is affected by farm’s wealth and liquidity position, the quality of legal enforcement of contracts, by whether farms have contracted sales to foreign processors, and whether they are established as successors t pre-reform organisations rather than start-up businesses.
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Опубликовано на портале: 04-01-2004
Harold Halcrow, Robert Spitze, Joyce Allen-Smith
New York: McGraw-Hill, 1994, 448 с.
Учебник об экономических и политических аспектах политики государства в агропромышленном комплексе. Предназначен для студентов последнего года обучения в бакалавриате и/или первого года обучения магистратуры. Рассматривается такие темы как экономика и сельское хозяйство, политология и сельское хозяйство, проблемы общественного выбора и политика в области сельского хозяйства сегодня.

Опубликовано на портале: 29-11-2003
Jason Hartell, Maureen Kilkenny, Johan Swinnen
2002
In this paper, we attempt to shed some light on the state of current thinking in Europe about rural development and policy. To do so, the priorities and preferences of European agricultural economists who work in the area of rural development policy were identified using a survey that asked the following questions: who do we believe needs help, what are the problems and objectives, which policies are likely to be effective, who is able to deliver, and where do we get these ideas? The paper documents the diversity in rural development problems and favored tactics across Europe.
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Опубликовано на портале: 29-11-2003
Daniel Hassan, Michel Simioni
2002
The existence and the kind of asymmetry that characterize the relationships between shipping-point and retail prices are investigated for two major French fresh vegetables: tomatoes and chicory. Weekly data allow considering these relationships at very detailed levels such as region or supermarket chain. Moreover, the methodology proposes an implicit treatment of asymmetries in price transmission by using recently developed threshold cointegration methods. Our results do not give evidence to the widespread assertion that shipping-point price increases are completely and rapidly passed by middlemen on to consumers while there is a slower and less complete transmission of shipping-point price declines. As already emphasized in the literature, these results may be linked to the perishable nature of the two considered fresh vegetables.
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