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Всего публикаций в данном разделе: 14

Книги

Авторы:
все А Б ВГ Д Е ЖЗИ ЙК Л М Н О П Р С Т У ФХ ЦЧ Ш ЩЭЮЯ
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X YZ
 
Названия:
А БВ Г Д ЕЖЗ И ЙК ЛМ Н О П Р С Т У ФХЦ ЧШЩЭ ЮЯ
A B C D E F G H I JKL M N O P Q R S T U V W XY Z
 

Опубликовано на портале: 04-01-2004
Julian Binfield, Gary Adams, Robert Young, Patrick Westhoff
Zaragoza, 2002
Most of the large scale modeling systems used in the analysis of agricultural policies produce deterministic projections. In reality, however, the agricultural sector is subject to a high degree of uncertainty as a result of fluctuations in exogenous factors such as the weather or macroeconomic variation. A stochastic approach can provide additional information to policy makers regarding the implications of this uncertainty, through the use of stochastically generated projections.

This paper also shows how deterministic analysis may result in systematic errors in the projection of some variables. As an applied example, the FAPRI model of the US agricultural sector is simulated stochastically to analyse the impact of proposals for the new US farm bill.
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Опубликовано на портале: 24-12-2003
Julian Binfield, Patrick Westhoff, Robert Young
Durban, 2003
In the Mid-Term Review (MTR), the European Commission proposed a series of changes to the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP). An important part of these changes was significant decoupling of support payments from production. In this paper, a partial equilibrium model of the EU agricultural sector is used to estimate the potential impacts of the MTR proposals on EU and world agricultural markets over the period 2004-2009. Effects of the MTR proposals are evaluated by comparing estimated outcomes under the proposals to those that would result under a current-policy baseline. The changes that are made in the MTR have the effect of reducing the production of the major commodities by varying amounts based on the importance of payments in production and the degree to which these payments are currently production inducing. For example, total area harvested for nine major crops falls by about 2 percent under the MTR proposals. In the livestock sector, however, where current payments are strongly coupled and form a large part of producers’ income, the reductions in production are projected to be more significant.
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Опубликовано на портале: 30-12-2003
Lilyan E. Fulginiti, Richard K. Perrin, Bingxin Yu
Durban, 2003
Agricultural productivity in 41 Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) countries from 1960 to 1999 is examined by estimating a semi-nonparametric Fourier production frontier. Over the four decades the estimated rate of productivity change was 0.83% per year, although the average rate from 1985-99 was a strong 1.90% per year. Former UK colonies exhibited significantly higher productivity gains than others, while Liberia and countries that had been colonies of Portugal or Belgium exhibited net reductions in productivity. We measure a significant reduction in productivity during political conflicts and wars, and a significant increase in productivity among those countries with a measure of political rights and civil liberties.
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Опубликовано на портале: 30-11-2003
T. S. Jayne, Takashi Yamano, James Nyoro
2003
This paper addresses the potential for interlinked credit/input/output marketing arrangements for particular cash crops to promote food crop intensification. Using panel survey data from Kenya, we estimate a household fixed-effects model of fertilizer use per hectare of food crops, using an instrumental variables approach for addressing the endogeneity of participation in interlinked credit arrangements. Results indicate that households engaging in interlinked marketing programs for selected cash crops applied considerably greater fertilizer on other crops (primarily cereals) not directly purchased by the cash crop trading firm. These findings suggest that, in addition to the direct stimulus that interlinked cash crop marketing arrangements can have on small farmer incomes, these institutional arrangements may provide spillover benefits for the productivity of the farmers. other activities such as food cropping.
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Опубликовано на портале: 29-11-2003
Guirao Perez, Cano Fernandez, Lopez M.I. Yurda, Rodriguez Donate
2002
In this paper we measure the impact of an individual’s socioeconomic conditions on the decision to consume wine in a traditionally wine-producing area. Based on the data obtained in an exhaustive survey on wine consumption and through discrete choice models, we assess the changes which come about in the decisions to consume the different types of wine under consideration, and we obtain the most relevant distinctive and differentiated characteristics for each one of them.
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Опубликовано на портале: 30-11-2003
Yves Surry, Rabelais Yankam Njonou, Bruno Henry De Frahan
2002
This study has used a corrected likelihood ratio, with AIDS and Rotterdam demand models, to test separability in three separable (A, B, C) wheat import demand structures on the French common wheat market. It appears from the study that the three separable Rotterdam structures are accepted by the test, while only two of them (B and C) are accepted in the case of AIDS at 5% level of significance. Meanwhile, model B seems to be more indicated in demand analysis with AIDS since it is the only one accepted at 15% level of significance. The results obtained demonstrate not only the necessity to test separability in demand structures, but also the necessity to know how the allocation models can be used for demand analysis purpose. The study has also shown a great difference in econometric results for AIDS and Rotterdam and pose once more the issue of the choice of a functional form in demand analysis.
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Опубликовано на портале: 22-03-2005
Jan Yager
Москва: John Wiley & Sons, 1994, 288 с.
Книга рассматривает практические стороны деятельности бизнесмена: внешний вид, этикет личного общения с партнерами, клиентами и сослуживцами, правила ведения телефонного разговора и переписки, манера поведения за столом, интерьер рабочего помещения, подарки сотрудникам и партнерам и т.д. Отдельная глава отведена особенностях этикета в разных странах. Книга содержит богатый фактический материал, собранный в ходе анкетных опросов в американских фирмах, написана легким, занимательным языком.

Опубликовано на портале: 24-12-2003
Takashi Yamano, Harold Alderman, Luc Christiaensen
Durban, 2003
Over the past decades child stunting in Ethiopia has persisted at alarming rates. While the country experienced several droughts during this period, it also received enormous amounts of food aid, leading some to question the effectiveness of food aid in reducing child malnutrition. Using nationally representative household surveys from 1995-96 and controlling for program placement, we find that children between 6 and 24 months experienced about 0.9 cm less growth over a six-month period in communities where half the crop area was damaged compared to those without crop damage. Food aid was also found to have a substantial effect on growth of children in this age group. Moreover, on average the total amount of food aid appeared to be sufficient to protect children against plot damage, an encouraging sign that food aid can act as an effective insurance mechanism, though its cost effectiveness needs further investigation.
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Опубликовано на портале: 31-12-2003
Takashi Yamano, T. S. Jayne
Durban, 2003
Using a two-year panel of 1,422 Kenyan households surveyed in 1997 and 2000, we measure how working age adult mortality affects rural households’ size and composition, crop production, asset levels, and off-farm income. First, the paper uses adult mortality rates from available data on an HIV-negative sample to predict the proportion of deaths observed between 1997 and 2000 due to AIDS. Next, using a difference-indifferences estimation, we measure changes in outcomes between households afflicted by adult mortality vs. those not afflicted over the three-year survey period. The effects of adult mortality are highly sensitive to the gender and position of the deceased family member in the household. Households suffering the death of the head-of-household or spouse incurred a greater-than-one person loss in household size. The death of a male head-of-household between 16 and 59 years is associated with a 68% reduction in the net value of the household’s crop production. Female head-of-household or spouse mortality causes a greater decline in cereal area cultivated, while cash crops such as coffee, tea, and sugar are most adversely affected in households incurring the death of a male head-of-household. Off-farm income is also significantly affected by the death of the male head-of-household, but not in the case of other adult members. The death of other working-age family members is partially offset by an inflow of other individuals into the family and has less dramatic effects on the households’ agricultural production, assets, and off-farm income. The effects of adult mortality are also sensitive to the household’s initial asset levels. Lastly, there is little indication that households are able to recover quickly from the effects of working-age head-of-household adult mortality; the effects on crop and non-farm incomes do not decay at least over the three-year survey interval.
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Опубликовано на портале: 04-01-2004
Renata Yanbykh
Boston: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2000, 409-427 с.
This paper discusses the policies of agricultural finance and credit which have been implemented during the period of economic reform in Russia. An examination of various government measures reveals the pitfalls and shortcomings in their implementation. The main problem, however, lies in the fact that the government is attempting to remedy the consequences, rather than tackling the causes. The delay in introducing new methods of regulating agricultural finance and credit is aggravating the problem even more.
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Опубликовано на портале: 29-11-2003
C.M. Yates, T. Rehman
2002
In order to respond to the current pressures on agriculture in the EU, the industry will have to go through fundamental structural change. Economic modelling provides the framework for understanding such changes. Mathematical programming is probably the most robust of all the modelling approaches notwithstanding several criticisms of the technique. Economists have long understood that profit maximisation is not the only objective of farmers. Although there are techniques to incorporate other objectives there does not exist a statistically rigorous method for estimating an appropriate objective functions. This problem also occurs at national and international levels of aggregation. This paper presents a new approach to modelling national and international production and trade through partial equilibrium and the use of a new development called positivistic mathematical programming. The nonlinear element of the objective function representing the partial equilibrium is estimated using past observations on supply, consumption and prices.

Further, the paper also presents an original parameterisation of the demand curve that allows perfect competition to be simulated within the framework of a single mathematical model. Such a methodology is an advancement over methods that are currently in use.
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Опубликовано на портале: 31-12-2003
Trevor Young, David Colman
Cambridge, USA: Cambridge University Press, 1989, 336 с.
Это один из базовых учебников для изучения принципов аграрной экономики. Отличительной чертой книги является анализ развития сельскохозяйственного и продовольственного рынков в развивающихся странах. Учебник является теоретическим и прикладным исследованием аграрных рынков – с точки зрения производства, потребления и торговли, снабжая экономистов инструментами анализа спроса, предложения, аграрных рынков развивающихся стран.

Опубликовано на портале: 28-11-2003
Tapani Yrjola, Jukka Kola
2002
This study aims at assessing the costs and benefits of multifunctional agriculture, and it is one of the very first studies using a quantitative approach to this new subject. The starting point is that if current farm subsidies are regarded as means to maintain the multifunctional characteristics of agriculture, what happens if subsidies are reduced. The effects of the decline in agricultural support on multifunctional characteristics of agriculture in Finland are estimated using the cost-benefit analysis (CBA). Only a part of the consequences can be assessed by the CBA due to lack of data on the economic value of many elements of multifunctional agriculture. Hence, the results should not be generalised too strongly, but they still provide useful information for the political decisionmaking.

Concerning further research, we should study, inter alia, what the so-called correct level of compensation for the adequate supply of public goods would be, and what kind of means of agricultural policy are the most efficient to unambiguously enhance the multifunctional character of agriculture.
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Опубликовано на портале: 29-11-2003
Wusheng Yu, Thomas W. Hertel, Paul Preckel, James Eales
2002
Projections of world food demands hinge critically on the underlying functional form used to predict future demands. Simple functional forms can lead to unrealistic projections by failing to capture changes in income elasticities of demand as consumer becomes wealthier. This paper compares several demand systems in the projection of disaggregated food demand across a wide range of countries with different income levels using a global general equilibrium model. We find that the recently introduced AIDADS system represents a substantial improvement over existing demand systems currently in use in CGE modeling. In particular, our projection results show that for relatively poor regions experiencing rapid income growth, the widely used LES and CDE demand systems tend to over-predict growth in consumer demand, and hence import and output requirements for food products and under-predict that for non-food products, compared to the AIDADS system. On the other hand, for high-income regions with modest income growth, the choice of functional form is less critical.
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